Pulmonary carcinoid

Comprise 1-2% of all lung malignancies.

Classified as typical and atypical according to histology.

WHO classifies lung and thymic neuroendocrine tumors into 4 major groups: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.

Up uo 30% of pulmonary carcinoid tumors may present as solid pulmonary nodules

Rarely metastasizes and has a 5-year survival rate ranging from 87-100%.

Surgical resection is only curative option at this time.

Patients with thoracic lymph nodes metastases do well after surgical resection.

About 90% are well differentiated with rare mitoses, pleomorhphism, and necrosis.

Approximately 15% of cases metastasize.

Survival for atypical carcinoid lesions 56% and 35% at 5 and 10 years, respectively.

Primary thymic carcinoids represent about 5% of mediastinal tumors and act aggressively in 80% of cases.

When involves the mediastinum may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN).

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