The estimated heritability of schizophrenia is 70% to 90%,

Chromosomal abnormalities occur in 1 in 160 live births.

Anaphylaxis-Life threatening reaction to an offending agent manifested by respiratory, cardiovascular, cutaneous and gastrointestinal symptoms:Etiologies include: drugs, foods, insect stings, radiographic contrast media, latex rubber, blood products, and physical factors.

The percentage of total body mass that is lean is usually 60–90%, and the body fat percentage, which is the complement, and is typically 10–40%.

69% of physicians believe that the average physician orders unnecessary medical tests and procedures at least once a week.

Environmental exposures predispose individuals to ulcerative colitis by influencing the diversity and composition of the 1 trillion bacteria, viruses, and fungi that form the intestinal microbiome.

There are gender disparities in epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatments.

Medicaid is the leading payer for pregnancies, covering more than 40% of them in the United States and more than 60% of births in some states.

There are about 800 lymph nodes in the body.

Individuals with an apple shape, i.e., excess abdominal fat compared to pear shaped people with excess lower body fat, have an increased cardiovascular risk.

Blacks, especially Black women, have the highest obesity cardiovascular related mortality.

Lumpectomy-The major complication is failure to excise the mammographic or palpable target and occurs in fewer than 3% of cases.

Breast cancer accounts for nearly one in three cancers diagnosed among women in the United States.

Estimated that 300,590 individuals will be diagnosed with female breast cancer in 2023: 15.4% of all cancers.

Lifetime risk for developing  atrial fibrillation is 21% – 23% in women and 17 – 26% in men.

Globally approximately 800,000 people died by suicide every year, counting to 1.5% of all deaths.

Sucrose (glucose + fructose), Lactose (glucose + galactose), Maltose (two molecules of glucose). 

Nearly 1 in eight pregnancies in the US is associated with gestational diabetes, and the rate is higher in the obese and those older than 35 years.

Autism is characterized by decreased spontaneous visual attention to social stimuli.

Autism spectrum disorder diagnosed in 1 of 36 children n the US.

Community acquired pneumonia associated with substantial, long-term illness and death, with death at one year occurring in approximately 30% of all hospitalized patients, and in approximately 50% of patients whose condition had resulted in an ICU admission.

A gap in life expectancy between adults with a college degree compared with those without one has sharply widened.

Grief is focused on the emotional response to loss, but has physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, spiritual and philosophical effects. 

More than 170,000 patients are living with multiple myeloma in the US.(2023).

Approximately 15% of women and 10% of men in the US feel either exhausted or extremely tired every day or most days of the preceding three months.

Chromosome 6 contains the major histocompatibility complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the immune response, and plays a vital role in organ transplantation.

Medical malpractice refers to professional negligence by act or omission by a health care professional in which the treatment provided falls below the accepted standard of practice in the medical community and causes injury or death to the patient.

Burnout-Refers to exhaustion of physical or emotional strength usually due to prolonged stress or frustration. A work related syndrome involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, sense of reduced personal accomplishment.Affects more than 50% of physicians.

Dengue-This disease is spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes and cannot be spread person to person.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate-Easy, inexpensive, nonspecific test that has been used to detect conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

Atrial fibrillation-Affects up to 2% of the population.

HPV 16 is the most carcinogenic associated with more than 60% of cervical squamous cancers, and adenocarcinomas and oropharyngeal and other anogenital cancers.

In 98,786 post menopausal women followed for a median of 20.9 years those consuming three servings or less of sugar sweetened beverages per month compared to those consuming one or more servings per day had a higher rate of liver cancer, 18 versus 10.3/100,000 persons and chronic disease mor talk Ty.

Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute about half of the total added sugar in the U.S. food supply.

Tooth decay is an infectious disease:  increased within dental plaque of bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. These organisms produce organic acids when carbohydrates, especially sugar, are eaten.

The biological clock, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, stimulates hunger.

HPV-16 and HPV-18 are responsible for the development of the majority of carcinomas arising from the cervix, greater than 90%, anus, greater than 90%, vagina/vulva greater than 60%, and penis 50%.m

The chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that results from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. 

Hypertension is adequately controlled in fewer than 25% of treated patients.

Untreated hypertension shortens life expectancy by five years.

Rigor mortis is characterized by stiffening of the limbs of a corpse caused by chemical changes, mainly calcium, in the muscles postmortem.

Physical activity concentrated within one to two days is associated with a similar low risk of cardiovascular outcomes to more evenly distributed activities.

Radiation exposure is the only proven nongenetic risk factor for meningioma formation

A healthy, well-nourished individual can survive for weeks without food intake, with claims ranging from three to ten weeks.

More than 99% of the human genome is identical from one person to the next.

Parenchyma of the brain is made up of 80% water.

The average weight of the male brain is 1,336 gms and the female brain is 1,198 gms.

The weight of the brain decreases in advancing age.

Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.

Intermittent fasting may be effective for weight loss, may decrease insulin resistance and fastinginsulin, and may improve cardiovascular andmetabolic health, although the long term sustainability of these effects has not been studied.

Chronic pain contributes to a financial burden of $894 billion each year from costs of medical care, loss of productivity, and disability programs.

Diabetic foot ulcers-More than 150,000 nontraumatic lower extremity amputations are performed every year in people with diabetes.

Binge eating disorder-Consumption of unusually large amounts of food associated with the feeling of being unable to stop eating.

Aspiration of small amounts of oropharyngeal secretions is normal in healthy persons during sleep, yet microaspiration is also the major pathogenetic mechanism of most pneumonias.

Numerous studies and meta-analyses have found a reduction in all-cause mortality in coffee consumers.

Personal responsibility is the understanding that we have the power to shape our lives through the choices we make and the actions we take.

Cold weather makes people more nostalgic, while nostalgia causes people to feel warmer.

Chronic hepatitis D is the most severe, and progressive form of viral hepatitis, and is the smallest viral pathogen infecting humans.

CO2e of plant-based proteins, such as legumes and soy beans represent less than 1 CO2eq per 28 g dry serving whereas on average equivalent amount of animal-based proteins such as ruminant meat are 1200 CO2eq and pork is 200 CO2eq.

Mental illnesses are a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with anxiety disorders being the second most influential contributor, after depressive disorders to global disability adjusted life years.

Preterm birth can cause poor health and developmental abnormalities, and is the leading cause of death worldwide among children under the age of five years.

In total, the number of people that own a smart and feature phone is 7.33 Billion, making up 91.21% of the world’s population.

Statins-Potent drugs of this class can lower the LDL cholesterol level in the blood by 30 to 50% and have profound benefits in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

In popular usage, the mind is frequently synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on inside our heads.

The mind it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access:

A typical Western diet ingested by an adult in one day includes approximately 100 g of fat, 400 g of carbohydrate, 100 g of protein, 2 L of fluid, and the required sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, vitamins, and other elements.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma increases are associated with an aging population, higher levels of sun exposure, the use of tanning beds, increase focus on skin cancer screening and detection, a growing proportion of patients with organ, transplants and underlying immunosuppression.

Skin cancers is most common of all cancers: One in five Americans will have skin cancer in their lifetime.

Flow-It is the mental state in which a person performing some activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.

Ectopic pregnancy-Mortality ratios are 6.8 times higher for black pregnant individuals compared with white pregnant individuals

Black hairy tongue-Painless disorder manifested by defective desquamation and hypertrophy of the filiform papillae of the tongue and revealed as an abnormal brown-black coating on the surface of the tongue.

Among women with the greatest exposure to tobacco menopause occurred more than 1-2 years earlier than among women who never smoked or been exposed to secondhand smoke.

Thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer.

It has been linked to several health benefits, including improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and improved gut health.

A meta-analysis and systematic review found relatively small or neutral overall associations of butter with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

There is an estimated genetic heritability of greater than 80% and environmental influence in 14 to 22% for the risk of ASD.

Inpatient costs are 46% higher and spending on prescription medication is 80% higher among people with obesity than among those without overweight or obesity.

Fructose containing sugars has been implicated as a driver of the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

CDC suggests that nearly 1 in 5 visits to emergency department for medication are for antibiotic adverse events

The radiation exposure from consuming one banana is approximately 1% of the average daily exposure to radiation, or about 50 times less than a typical x-ray in a dental exam and 400 times less than taking a commercial flight across the United States.

When a calorie of food energy is consumed, one of three effects occur within the body: a portion of that calorie may be stored as body fat, triglycerides, or glycogen, transferred to cells and converted to chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP – a coenzyme) or related compounds, or dissipated as heat.

Neonatalogists suggest that early skin-to-skin contact by placing the naked newborn baby on the mother’s chest is of benefit to both mother and infant.

Most HPV infections are not noticed, and more than 90% of the infections clear to become undetectable within 1 to 2 years. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Successful aging involves three components: a) freedom from disease and disability, b) high cognitive and physical functioning, and c) social and productive engagement.

Generally, aversion to aging is a Western attitude, while in other places around the world, old age is celebrated and honored. 

It is used to report the five most common ambient air pollutants that are regulated under the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

Approximately 70–80% of postpartum women will experience the “baby blues” for a few days, and 10 and 20 percent may experience clinical depression.

Currently, over 11% of the world’s current population are people aged 60 and older, and that by 2050 that number will rise to approximately 22%.

The three most common causes of upper G.I. bleeding are peptic ulcer disease esophageal varices and erosive gastritis.

In a population based study, transgender and gender diverse participants, self report, a mean poor mental health of 14.8 days per month compared with 6 for cisgender participants.

Air pollution is responsible for shortening people’s lives worldwide on a large scale, and the world is facing an air pollution pandemic.

COPD affects 15.9 million people in the US and is the fourth leading cause of death.

Plant-based diets are associated with reduced incidence of chronic diseases  such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cancer.

Post parturition depression occurs in 10-30% of patients after delivery.

Circadian rhythm is observed in body temperature, heart rate, secretion of several hormones, red blood cell production and other physiological characteristics.

The maternal mortality rate among black women has climbed to 69.9 deaths per hundred thousand, 2.6 times that of white women, a disparity that has persisted for decades.

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and numerically the fastest growing neurologic disease, affecting 1% of people older than 60 years in high income countries.

The amount of sperm in semen had declined by 1% per year since 1938: other more recent studies confirm the decline in sperm count, sperm count, motility, morphology and seminal volume.

Spondylosis is caused from years of constant abnormal pressure, caused by joint subluxation, stress induced by sports, acute and/or repetitive trauma, or poor posture, being placed on the vertebrae and the discs between them. 

Chronic inflammation and immunosenescence, which both increase with advanced chronological age, renders the elderly population more vulnerable to adverse, long term effects of viral infections.

Personal well-being helps define as how satisfied we are with our lives, our sense that what we do in life is worthwhile, our day to day emotional experiences of happiness and anxiety and our wider mental wellbeing.

Cancers linked to tobacco use comprise 40% of all cancer diagnoses, and cigarette smoking is linked to 30% of all cancer related deaths nationwide.

Relationships are all important in fueling positive emotions, whether they are work-related, familial, romantic, or platonic. 

The concentration of IL-6 cytokine is usually very low or non-detectable in young adults though levels increase in old age and are very high in the elderly: elevated IL-6 associated with cognitive impairment, low locomotion, depression, disability and mortality in older adults.

High serum levels are associated with cognitive impairment, low locomotion, and depression.

Postpartum urinary incontinence is experienced by about 33% of all women.

Despite substantial, therapeutic advances, diabetes related mortality has increased: it is still a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and amputation below the knee worldwide.

An average human adult has 30 billion fat cells with a weight of 30 lbs or 13.5 kg.

The main function of a lactation is to provide nutrition and immune protection to the young after birth.

In the first few days following childbirth, the risk of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relatively high as hypercoagulability increases during pregnancy and is maximal in the postpartum period.

Neonatalogists suggest that early skin-to-skin contact by placing the naked newborn baby on the mother’s chest is of benefit to both mother and infant (skin to skin contact).

More than 80% of individuals with prediabetes are overweight or have a BMI of 25 or greater.

In most studies, the optimal target goal for blood pressure management is a systolic blood pressure of less than 130 mm Hg.

Cherries may reduce both the acute and chronic inflammation associated with recurrent gout flares and its chronic destructive arthropathy.

Even minimal exposure to UV radiation can facilitate the degradation of skin collagen and lead to photoaging.

In the majority of prostate cancer cases currently diagnosed, the disease is localized, with only approximately 7% of patients with metastatic disease.

The Apgar score is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five criteria: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (APGAR).

Linea nigra is often referred to as a pregnancy line, is a linear hyperpigmentation that commonly appears on the abdomen.

People with an autotelic personality have a greater preference for high-action-opportunities , high-skills situations that stimulate them and encourage growth compared to those without an autotelic personality. It is in such high-challenge, high-skills situations that people are most likely to experience flow.

The estimated hereditability of coronary artery disease ranges from 40-60%.

Stress can be countered by social connection, spirituality, and, for men more clearly than for women, married life, all of which are associated with longevity.

Loneliness carries a higher mortality risk than smoking.

The  United States has the  highest or near-highest prevalence of obesity, car accidents, infant mortality, heart and lung disease, sexually transmitted infections, adolescent pregnancies, injuries, and homicides.

Among the main causes for female infertility, tubal factors account for 25-35% of cases.

Hair grows in cycles of various phases: anagen is the growth phase; catagen is the involuting or regressing phase; and telogen, the resting or quiescent phase.

Butyrate helps to repair the damage that pesticides, toxins, processed foods, drugs, and more have done to the lining of the gut. 

The microbiome is responsible for creating the right immune cells and cell responses to different threats, maintaining the integrity of the intestinal wall, and producing the right nutrients to maintain homeostasis in the gut.

The digestive tract the most susceptible part of the body to inflammation and disease: most of our immune cells and the microbes that regulate those immune responses live in our digestive tract. 

Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status.

Positive emotions in well-being: range of feelings, not just happiness and joy, but emotions like excitement, satisfaction, pride and awe: are frequently seen as connected to positive outcomes, such as longer life and healthier social relationships.

Different types of well-being are distinguished: mental well-being, physical well-being, economic well-being or emotional well-being.

It is the narcissism in us that leads to the dread appearing stupid or incompetent.

Dietary fiber in food promotes satiety and reduced food intake and may explain the association between fiber intake and lower body weight.

The postnatal period is the most critical and most neglected phase in the lives of mothers and babies; most maternal and newborn deaths occur during this period.

People with a serious mental illness are responsible for less than 4% of all the violent acts committed in the United States.

The total economic cost to society of addiction is greater than that of all types of diabetes and all cancers combined.

Short chain fatty acids play an important role in maintaining overall health, particularly with respect to energy metabolism, immune function, and gut health.

Wilms tumor is a form of kidney cancer that primarily develops in children:nearly all cases it will diagnosed before age 10.

The X chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes. Humans and most mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have X and Y chromosomes.

Abnormal uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age is experienced by approximately 1/3 of all women throughout their lifetime.

The leading causes of death among Black Americans and White Americans are diseases of the heart, whereas those among Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans are malignant neoplasms.

Parenchyma of the brain is made up of 80% water.

The average weight of the male brain is 1,336 gms and the female brain is 1,198 gms.

The weight of the brain decreases in advancing age.

Women in the United States, today, are more likely to die in childbirth than were their mothers and grandmothers.

More than 90% of the people in the US exceed recommended limit on sodium intake across almost all age groups.

Brain-The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consists of at least 60% fat.

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