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Expression of pain is socially more acceptable among women, whereas men show increased pain tolerance and greater resistance in reporting pain.

Bisexual and lesbian participants in the Nurses’Health Study II died  an estimated 37% and 20% sooner, respectively, than heterosexual participants (MdKetta S).

Loneliness carries a higher mortality risk than smoking.

The acceptable range for protein expressed as a percentage of total energy intake is 10 to 15% for all persons over the age of three years.

Height is closely correlated with other health components, such as life expectancy.

A correlation between small stature and a longer life expectancy exists.

The pancreas has approximately 1 million islets.

It is the narcissism in us that leads to the dread appearing stupid or incompetent.

Half of all mental health conditions start by 14 years of age but most cases go undetected and untreated.Mental health

High scoring individuals on neuroticism are more likely than average to experience: anxiety, worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy, jealousy, pessimism, guilt, depressed mood, and loneliness.

Diet related diseases are estimated to cost of $1.1 trillion in the US each year.

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system during exercise leads to a redistribution of blood flow away from inactive and relatively over-perfused tissues such as the kidney and liver so that a very high fraction of cardiac output can be directed to the exercising skeletal muscles.

Hearing loss in middle in late life is the single largest potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, accounting for 8% of all dementia cases.

Plasmodium falciparum is regarded as the deadliest parasite in humans.

More than 25% of older adults fall each year, and falls are the leading cause of injury related death in people  aged 65 years or older.

The global incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has doubled since the 1990s, whereas overall survival rates have only increased from 3 to 5% to just 12% is of 2023.

For all stages combined, the five year relative survival rate for prostate cancer is 97%.

Males die much more often by means of suicide than females do.

Sudden cardiac death is the cause of about half of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and about 15% of all deaths globally.

Savant skills that most commonly manifest as memory, art, music, mental arithmetic, and calendar calculation are more common in people with ASD.

Nearly all people with sufficient motion will suffer motion sickness.

Only about 50% of patients with chronic diseases follow treatment recommendations with particularly low rates of adherence to therapies for asthma, diabetes, and hypertension.

Alcohol, like other addictive drugs, stimulates regions of the brain associated with reward by releasing the neurotransmitter dopamine, which reinforces behavior and increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.

Poor nutrition is a major risk factor and the leading preventable cause of chronic disease in the US. Sub optimal diet contributes to one in  five deaths worldwide.

76% of persons over the age of 60 years report problems with their memory.

Patients with type one diabetes, have a life expectancy that is approximately 13 years shorter than that of the general population. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, and two thirds of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease in the USA are female.

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and the second only to heart disease in the US.

Continuous exercise can produce a transient state of euphoria – an affective state involving the experience of pleasure and feelings of profound contentment, elation, and well-being – which is known as a “runner’s high”.

There are two distinct types of empathy which people use to relate to each other which are referred to as hot and cold empathy. Cold empathy refers to the understanding of how others might react to one’s actions or a certain event.Hot empathy refers to the emotional reaction others might have to the emotions of another person.

Warming up increases body temperature, specifically in the muscles, improves explosive skeletal muscle performance of jumping and sprinting, and prevents injury.

Hypertension, the number one cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide, and the world’s leading risk factor for burden of disease and death.

Death rattle is a distinctive sound that can occur in the final stages of life when a person is close to death.

Perinatal mental health conditions are the most common pregnancy complications, and the leading cause of overall and preventable maternal mortality.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental condition, affecting 5.9% of youths and 2.5% of adults worldwide.

Annual suicide attempt rates for bipolar disorder are approximately 30 to 60 times higher than the general population.

Composing a lie takes longer than telling the truth.

Bladder cancer is the 10th most common cancer globally and the fourth most common in men.

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical component of the innate immune system.

About 75,000 cataract procedures are performed per day globally.

Hyperacusis (HA) is an increased sensitivity to sound and a low tolerance for environmental noise.

Flow is the mental state in which a person performing some activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.In essence, flow is characterized by the complete absorption in what one does, and a resulting transformation in one’s sense of time.

Individuals tend to focus more on objective success: status, wealth, reputation as benchmarks for success, rather than subjective success: self-worth, relationships, moral introspection, and as a result become disillusioned with the success they do have.

Psoriasis is now thought to be a systemic condition, and not just a skin disease, with obesity, diabetes, major cardiovascular events, and a life expectancy of five years less than that of persons without psoriasis.

Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine which is the longest part of the GI tract.

End stage heart failure kills more than 300,000 Americans each year.

The estimated heritability of age related macular degeneration is greater than 70%.

Eating disorders affect approximately 4.9% of the women and 2.2% of men in the US.

In the US, very large intervention programs such as the Head Start Program have not produced lasting gains in IQ scores.

There are approximately 8 million adults in the United States with bipolar disorder.

Cannabis use is associated with impaired driving ability within an associated increase of risk of motor vehicle crashes of 30-40%, compared to blood alcohol concentrations of .08%, which increases the risk of crashes by 250 to 300%.

Of the 80 disorders diagnosed in adulthood for which sex ratios are provided, 35 are said to be more common in men than in women (17 of which are substance related or a paraphilia), 31 are said to be more common in women than men, and 14 are said to be equally common in both sexes.

Trauma is the sixth leading cause of death, and the fifth ranking cause of moderate or severe disability in the world.

Two-thirds of the population scoring between IQ 85 and IQ 115 and about 2.5 percent each above 130 and below 70.

Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children between the ages of one and 17 years, with about 3% of these fatalities due to firearm injuries.

Women, with a first degree relative with breast cancer, have twice the risk of developing breast cancer, on average, compared with other women.

People are poorly adapted to the abundance of energy-dense foods, and highly palatable foods that by-pass our drive to eat to fulfil nutritional needs.

Infections associated with cancer:Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HBV and HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs), Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma hematobium

About 2/3 of patients with cannabis use disorder have at least 1 other current substance use disorder, most commonly alcohol or tobacco.

Almost half of persons with cannabis use disorder have a current psychiatric disorder that is not substance use disorder and includes most commonly: major depression, post traumatic stress disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder.

Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change and adapt throughout a person’s life: The brain has the ability to reorganize itself in response to learning, experience, and even injury.

Suicide is the second leading cause of death for children and adolescents in the United States.

Basal cell carcinoma incidence exceeds that of all other cancers combined.

People who habitually consume more sodium find that foods tasted less salty than those who consumed less sodium.

Consistent aerobic exercise over a period of several months induces improvements in executive functions and increased gray matter volume in nearly all regions of the brain,, with the most marked increases occurring in brain regions that give rise to executive functions.

The EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition), that followed over 500,000 European adults for 16 years, found that regular coffee drinkers had a 7% to 12% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared to non-drinkers.

One fourth of the world’s population will suffer a mental or behavioral disorder during their lifetime: Mental illness accounts for about one-third of adult disability globally.

Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions, now affecting more than 70% of the US adult population and more than  50% of persons worldwide.

Human echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects.

Brain volume does not correlate to intelligence, or intelligence quotient (IQ).

Aerobic exercise has both short and long term effects on mood and emotional states by promoting positive affect, inhibiting negative affect, and decreasing the biological response to acute psychological stress.

The Big Five Personality Traits breaks personality down into five components: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Openness, and Stress Tolerance.

It takes a food bolus entering the esophagus during swallowing, to be forced down into the stomach in a peristaltic wave lasting about 8–9 seconds.

In 2022 life expectancy grew by 1.1  years from 76.4 years to 77.5 years (CDC); decreases in COVID-19 deaths, contributed most to the increase in average life expectancy, followed by reduced deaths from heart disease, unintentional injuries, cancer, and homicide.

In the USA, approximately 20% of women over 50 years of age and 30% of women 65 years of age or older have criteria for osteoporosis.

A correlation between small stature and a longer life expectancy exists.

It is perfectly normal for people to shed between 50 and 100 hairs from their heads every day.

The Flynn effect-there has been an increase in intelligence test scores in many parts of the world over the 20th century. But, presently, there is evidence the Flynn effect has reversed, with a worldwide decline in intelligence, suggesting that both the original rise in mean IQ scores and their subsequent decline was caused by environmental factors.

Women are disproportionately burdened, by sexually transmitted infection sequelae including:  pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, increased risk of HIV accusation, pregnancy and fetal complications.

Consistent aerobic exercise over a period of several months induces marked clinically significant improvements in executive function,the cognitive control of behavior, and increases gray matter volume in multiple brain regions, particularly those that give rise to cognitive control.

Binge drinking is responsible for half of deaths and three quarters of economic costs of excessive drinking.

Female genital mutilation is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honor, and who fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion.

Ventilator associated pneumonia is the leading nosocomial infection worldwide.

It is suggested that improvements in gross domestic product (GDP), education, literacy, and nutrition may have an effect on IQ mainly through reducing the intensity of infectious diseases: States with a higher prevalence of infectious diseases havelower average IQ.

Traditional Chinese Mediicine (acupuncture) theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community.

The function of taste perception is vital to help prevent harmful or rotten foods from being consumed.

Indoor tanning of any duration increases the relative risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by 1.67.

Repositioning to the prone, face down, position on ventilators might improve oxygenation by relieving atelectasis and improving perfusion in acute respiratory stress syndrome: when done early in the treatment of severe ARDS, confers a mortality benefit of 26% compared to supine ventilation.

American Indian and Alaskan native life expectancy at birth was  65.2 years in 2021, the lowest of any racial or ethnic group in the US-10 years less than that of the general population.

Theaverage person produces more than 500 billion blood cells every day

Omega-3 fatty acids a family of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, are  so called because humans cannot manufacture it and must get it from food: Omega-3 fatty acids are mostly obtained from oily fish.

There are five antibody classes known as IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM: The prefix “Ig” stands for immunoglobulin, while the suffix denotes the type of heavy chain the antibody contains: the heavy chain types α (alpha), γ (gamma), δ (delta), ε (epsilon), μ (mu) give rise to IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE, IgM, respectively.

The body has up to 10 billion different B-cells.
Approximately 8%–20% of bone marrow mononuclear cells are lymphocytes, with a T cell/B cell ratio of 5∶1.

The vestibular system works with the visual system, and joint and muscle receptors to maintain balance. 

Among 29.5 million people reported to have alcohol use disorder in 2021 only an estimated 0.9% receipt received for pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder.

There is a bidirectional association between depression and obesity, as each diagnosis is associated with increased risk of developing the other.

2020 data suggested more than 28.3 million people age 12 years or older in the US met criteria for alcohol use disorder in the past year.

Proton therapy can give similar or higher radiation doses to the tumor with a 50%-60% lower total body radiation dose compared to traditional radiation therapy.

The average daily caffeine intake in the US is about 186-226 mg/D, well below the very conservative limit of 400 mg per day cited in safety reviews.

More than 3/4 of sodium in the US diet is added during food processing.

Inflammaging is a chronic, sterile low-grade inflammation that develops with advanced age, in the absence of overt infection, and may contribute to clinical manifestations of other age-related pathologies.

Substantial evidence is present that many commonly used treatments, including supplements (glucosamine), acetaminophen, opioids, acupuncture, and arthroscopy have no clinical meaning for benefit over placebo in treating knee pain.

Depression can become self perpetuating as occupational, relationship and social losses accrue.

Trauma is largely a condition of young people, and is the leading cause of life years lost between one and 75 years of age, and costs in the US are estimated at $4.2 trillion a year.

After a hip fracture, many women never regain independence, 20% are institutionalized, and the risk of death within one year doubles. 

A raw apple with skin weighing 100 grams provides 52 calories and a moderate content of dietary fiber: there is low content of micronutrients, with the Daily Values of all falling below 10%.

White men commit 70% of the suicides in the U.S.

Sepsis:Estimated to be responsible for 20% of the world’s deaths.

A male mouth can hold, on average, 71.2 ml, while a female mouth can hold 55.4 ml.

Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. 

Unhealthy alcohol uses the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States, accounting for 145,000 deaths annually.

Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiome , and a western style diet and obesity lead to gut dysbiosis and chronic intestinal inflammation, which can promote colorectal tumorigenesis.

Approximately 500,000 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the US:Approximately 14,500 new cases of cancer diagnosed in children from birth to 19 years annually, and approximately 1800-1900 will die.

Hyponatremia is the sodium level of less than 135 mmol per liter and is the most common electrolyte abnormality, affecting approximately 5% of adults, and 35% of hospitalized patients.

With highly processed foods less starch reaches the large intestine and more energy is absorbed by the body, and this shift in energy delivery due to eating more processed foods may be contributing factors to the development of metabolic disorders of modern life, including obesity and diabetes.

Studies have linked loss of the Y chromosome in blood to cancer, heart disease, and other disorders.

Risk factors for a pelvic organ prolapse: childbirth, particularly vaginal delivery, smoking, menopause, and conditions that cause chronic increase in intraabdominal pressure, such as constipation and obesity.

Individuals tend to focus more on objective success: status, wealth, reputation as benchmarks for success, rather than subjective success: self-worth, relationships, moral introspection, and as a result become disillusioned with the success they do have.

The three most common causes of knee pain are: osteoarthritis (654 million, 23% of adult age greater than 40 years), patellofemoral pain with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 25%, and meniscal tears (620 million  adults with 12% of the general adult population).

Foods that most Americans consume daily are as addictive as illegal drugs: British Medical Journal study found that an estimated 14% of adults and 12% of children are addicted to ultra-processed foods that include refined sugar and fats: Fatty and sugar-rich foods are as addictive as nicotine and cocaine and even more so than heroin.

The scientists found foods most likely to trigger addictive responses were refined carbohydrates or fats that produced similar levels of dopamine in the brain as addictive substances such as nicotine and alcohol. 

Such ultra-processed foods include ice cream, potato chips, donuts, biscuits, sausage, soft drinks, and sugary cereals.

Ultra-processed foods high in refined carbohydrates and added fats are highly rewarding, appealing, and consumed compulsively and may be addictive.

By 2045, 700 million individuals worldwide are expected to have diabetes mellitus, up from 463 million in 2019. 

Males generally have squarer, stronger, and larger mandibles than females. 

About 60 million people die globally each year, and about 1/3 of these deaths are attributed to cardiovascular diseases.

Distinguishing between jealousy and envy: jealousy involves the wish to keep what one has, and envy the wish to get what one does not have.

Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections cause more than 1 million treatable, sexually transmitted diseases daily worldwide.

The time between the first depressive episode, and a clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder is approximately nine years.

Nations that consume more protein in the form of meat, dairy, eggs, and fish tend to be taller, while those that obtain more protein from cereals tend to be shorter.

Populations with high cattle per capita and high consumption of dairy live longer and are taller. 

Top 10 personality traits of high IQ people include:Empathy and compassion.Highly observant and adaptable,Thirst to learn new skills and about the world at large.Maturity and self-control,Good short-term memory,Mentally flexible,Willingness to self-educate,Ability to ask the right questions,Good language, reasoning, and judgement skills

Global data suggests that 57.2% and 52.6% of cases of incident cardiovascular disease among women and men, respectively, and 22.2%, and 19.1% of deaths from any cause among women and men, respectively, may be attributable to five modifiable risk factors: body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low density, lipoprotein, cholesterol level, tobacco, smoking, and diabetes.

In 2022, spending by the Medicare Trustees topped $900 billion per the Trustees report of which $423 billion came from the U.S. Treasury and the rest primarily from the Part A Trust Fund (which is funded by payroll taxes) and premiums paid by beneficiaries. 

Almost one in three pregnancies is spontaneously lost in the first trimester, affecting 1 million patients in the US annually: The most common cause of early pregnancy loss is fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

It is estimated that of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds, 100,000 per day, die of age-related causes.

Adipose based chronic disease is the greatest noninfectious epidemic of the 21st-century.

It is estimated that the average person in the United States consumes around 19.5 teaspoons, or 82 grams (g) of sugar, per day: over double the amount recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA), which is 9 teaspoons per day for men and 6 teaspoons for women.

The lifetime risk for breast cancer for a female in the US is estimated at one in eight females.

Personal identity refers to the distinct characteristics, traits, and qualities that define an individual and distinguish them from others. It encompasses various aspects, including physical, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions.

Each year in the US RSV causes 60-160,000 hospitalizations and up to 10,000 deaths in adults older than 60 years.

The physical sensation of hunger is related to contractions of the stomach muscles. 

Houseflies alternate between breeding and feeding in dirty places with feeding on human foods, during which process they soften the food with saliva and deposit their feces, creating a health hazard.

Nitric oxide-Endogenous defense against vascular injury, inflammation, thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

The lymphatic system is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues, transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system, transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones, transports antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated.

Vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) of a little more than four minutes per day is associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause mortality in both exercisers and non-exercisers (Stamatakis E).

The estimated heritability of schizophrenia is 70% to 90%,

Chromosomal abnormalities occur in 1 in 160 live births.

Anaphylaxis-Life threatening reaction to an offending agent manifested by respiratory, cardiovascular, cutaneous and gastrointestinal symptoms:Etiologies include: drugs, foods, insect stings, radiographic contrast media, latex rubber, blood products, and physical factors.

The percentage of total body mass that is lean is usually 60–90%, and the body fat percentage, which is the complement, and is typically 10–40%.

69% of physicians believe that the average physician orders unnecessary medical tests and procedures at least once a week.

Environmental exposures predispose individuals to ulcerative colitis by influencing the diversity and composition of the 1 trillion bacteria, viruses, and fungi that form the intestinal microbiome.

There are gender disparities in epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatments.

Medicaid is the leading payer for pregnancies, covering more than 40% of them in the United States and more than 60% of births in some states.

There are about 800 lymph nodes in the body.

Individuals with an apple shape, i.e., excess abdominal fat compared to pear shaped people with excess lower body fat, have an increased cardiovascular risk.

Blacks, especially Black women, have the highest obesity cardiovascular related mortality.

Lumpectomy-The major complication is failure to excise the mammographic or palpable target and occurs in fewer than 3% of cases.

Breast cancer accounts for nearly one in three cancers diagnosed among women in the United States.

Estimated that 300,590 individuals will be diagnosed with female breast cancer in 2023: 15.4% of all cancers.

Lifetime risk for developing  atrial fibrillation is 21% – 23% in women and 17 – 26% in men.

Globally approximately 800,000 people died by suicide every year, counting to 1.5% of all deaths.

Sucrose (glucose + fructose), Lactose (glucose + galactose), Maltose (two molecules of glucose). 

Nearly 1 in eight pregnancies in the US is associated with gestational diabetes, and the rate is higher in the obese and those older than 35 years.

Autism is characterized by decreased spontaneous visual attention to social stimuli.

Autism spectrum disorder diagnosed in 1 of 36 children n the US.

Community acquired pneumonia associated with substantial, long-term illness and death, with death at one year occurring in approximately 30% of all hospitalized patients, and in approximately 50% of patients whose condition had resulted in an ICU admission.

A gap in life expectancy between adults with a college degree compared with those without one has sharply widened.

Grief is focused on the emotional response to loss, but has physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, spiritual and philosophical effects. 

More than 170,000 patients are living with multiple myeloma in the US.(2023).

Approximately 15% of women and 10% of men in the US feel either exhausted or extremely tired every day or most days of the preceding three months.

Chromosome 6 contains the major histocompatibility complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the immune response, and plays a vital role in organ transplantation.

Medical malpractice refers to professional negligence by act or omission by a health care professional in which the treatment provided falls below the accepted standard of practice in the medical community and causes injury or death to the patient.

Burnout-Refers to exhaustion of physical or emotional strength usually due to prolonged stress or frustration. A work related syndrome involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, sense of reduced personal accomplishment.Affects more than 50% of physicians.

Dengue-This disease is spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes and cannot be spread person to person.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate-Easy, inexpensive, nonspecific test that has been used to detect conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

Atrial fibrillation-Affects up to 2% of the population.

HPV 16 is the most carcinogenic associated with more than 60% of cervical squamous cancers, and adenocarcinomas and oropharyngeal and other anogenital cancers.

In 98,786 post menopausal women followed for a median of 20.9 years those consuming three servings or less of sugar sweetened beverages per month compared to those consuming one or more servings per day had a higher rate of liver cancer, 18 versus 10.3/100,000 persons and chronic disease mor talk Ty.

Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute about half of the total added sugar in the U.S. food supply.

Tooth decay is an infectious disease:  increased within dental plaque of bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. These organisms produce organic acids when carbohydrates, especially sugar, are eaten.

The biological clock, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, stimulates hunger.

HPV-16 and HPV-18 are responsible for the development of the majority of carcinomas arising from the cervix, greater than 90%, anus, greater than 90%, vagina/vulva greater than 60%, and penis 50%.m

The chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that results from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. 

Hypertension is adequately controlled in fewer than 25% of treated patients.

Untreated hypertension shortens life expectancy by five years.

Rigor mortis is characterized by stiffening of the limbs of a corpse caused by chemical changes, mainly calcium, in the muscles postmortem.

Physical activity concentrated within one to two days is associated with a similar low risk of cardiovascular outcomes to more evenly distributed activities.

Radiation exposure is the only proven nongenetic risk factor for meningioma formation

A healthy, well-nourished individual can survive for weeks without food intake, with claims ranging from three to ten weeks.

More than 99% of the human genome is identical from one person to the next.

Parenchyma of the brain is made up of 80% water.

The average weight of the male brain is 1,336 gms and the female brain is 1,198 gms.

The weight of the brain decreases in advancing age.

Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.

Intermittent fasting may be effective for weight loss, may decrease insulin resistance and fastinginsulin, and may improve cardiovascular andmetabolic health, although the long term sustainability of these effects has not been studied.

Chronic pain contributes to a financial burden of $894 billion each year from costs of medical care, loss of productivity, and disability programs.

Diabetic foot ulcers-More than 150,000 nontraumatic lower extremity amputations are performed every year in people with diabetes.

Binge eating disorder-Consumption of unusually large amounts of food associated with the feeling of being unable to stop eating.

Aspiration of small amounts of oropharyngeal secretions is normal in healthy persons during sleep, yet microaspiration is also the major pathogenetic mechanism of most pneumonias.

Numerous studies and meta-analyses have found a reduction in all-cause mortality in coffee consumers.

Personal responsibility is the understanding that we have the power to shape our lives through the choices we make and the actions we take.

Cold weather makes people more nostalgic, while nostalgia causes people to feel warmer.

Chronic hepatitis D is the most severe, and progressive form of viral hepatitis, and is the smallest viral pathogen infecting humans.

CO2e of plant-based proteins, such as legumes and soy beans represent less than 1 CO2eq per 28 g dry serving whereas on average equivalent amount of animal-based proteins such as ruminant meat are 1200 CO2eq and pork is 200 CO2eq.

Mental illnesses are a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with anxiety disorders being the second most influential contributor, after depressive disorders to global disability adjusted life years.

Preterm birth can cause poor health and developmental abnormalities, and is the leading cause of death worldwide among children under the age of five years.

In total, the number of people that own a smart and feature phone is 7.33 Billion, making up 91.21% of the world’s population.

Statins-Potent drugs of this class can lower the LDL cholesterol level in the blood by 30 to 50% and have profound benefits in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

In popular usage, the mind is frequently synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on inside our heads.

The mind it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access:

A typical Western diet ingested by an adult in one day includes approximately 100 g of fat, 400 g of carbohydrate, 100 g of protein, 2 L of fluid, and the required sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, vitamins, and other elements.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma increases are associated with an aging population, higher levels of sun exposure, the use of tanning beds, increase focus on skin cancer screening and detection, a growing proportion of patients with organ, transplants and underlying immunosuppression.

Skin cancers is most common of all cancers: One in five Americans will have skin cancer in their lifetime.

Flow-It is the mental state in which a person performing some activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.

Ectopic pregnancy-Mortality ratios are 6.8 times higher for black pregnant individuals compared with white pregnant individuals

Black hairy tongue-Painless disorder manifested by defective desquamation and hypertrophy of the filiform papillae of the tongue and revealed as an abnormal brown-black coating on the surface of the tongue.

Among women with the greatest exposure to tobacco menopause occurred more than 1-2 years earlier than among women who never smoked or been exposed to secondhand smoke.

Thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer.

It has been linked to several health benefits, including improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and improved gut health.

A meta-analysis and systematic review found relatively small or neutral overall associations of butter with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

There is an estimated genetic heritability of greater than 80% and environmental influence in 14 to 22% for the risk of ASD.

Inpatient costs are 46% higher and spending on prescription medication is 80% higher among people with obesity than among those without overweight or obesity.

Fructose containing sugars has been implicated as a driver of the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

CDC suggests that nearly 1 in 5 visits to emergency department for medication are for antibiotic adverse events

The radiation exposure from consuming one banana is approximately 1% of the average daily exposure to radiation, or about 50 times less than a typical x-ray in a dental exam and 400 times less than taking a commercial flight across the United States.

When a calorie of food energy is consumed, one of three effects occur within the body: a portion of that calorie may be stored as body fat, triglycerides, or glycogen, transferred to cells and converted to chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP – a coenzyme) or related compounds, or dissipated as heat.

Neonatalogists suggest that early skin-to-skin contact by placing the naked newborn baby on the mother’s chest is of benefit to both mother and infant.

Most HPV infections are not noticed, and more than 90% of the infections clear to become undetectable within 1 to 2 years. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Successful aging involves three components: a) freedom from disease and disability, b) high cognitive and physical functioning, and c) social and productive engagement.

Generally, aversion to aging is a Western attitude, while in other places around the world, old age is celebrated and honored. 

It is used to report the five most common ambient air pollutants that are regulated under the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

Approximately 70–80% of postpartum women will experience the “baby blues” for a few days, and 10 and 20 percent may experience clinical depression.

Currently, over 11% of the world’s current population are people aged 60 and older, and that by 2050 that number will rise to approximately 22%.

The three most common causes of upper G.I. bleeding are peptic ulcer disease esophageal varices and erosive gastritis.

In a population based study, transgender and gender diverse participants, self report, a mean poor mental health of 14.8 days per month compared with 6 for cisgender participants.

Air pollution is responsible for shortening people’s lives worldwide on a large scale, and the world is facing an air pollution pandemic.

COPD affects 15.9 million people in the US and is the fourth leading cause of death.

Plant-based diets are associated with reduced incidence of chronic diseases  such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cancer.

Post parturition depression occurs in 10-30% of patients after delivery.

Circadian rhythm is observed in body temperature, heart rate, secretion of several hormones, red blood cell production and other physiological characteristics.

The maternal mortality rate among black women has climbed to 69.9 deaths per hundred thousand, 2.6 times that of white women, a disparity that has persisted for decades.

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and numerically the fastest growing neurologic disease, affecting 1% of people older than 60 years in high income countries.

The amount of sperm in semen had declined by 1% per year since 1938: other more recent studies confirm the decline in sperm count, sperm count, motility, morphology and seminal volume.

Spondylosis is caused from years of constant abnormal pressure, caused by joint subluxation, stress induced by sports, acute and/or repetitive trauma, or poor posture, being placed on the vertebrae and the discs between them. 

Chronic inflammation and immunosenescence, which both increase with advanced chronological age, renders the elderly population more vulnerable to adverse, long term effects of viral infections.

Personal well-being helps define as how satisfied we are with our lives, our sense that what we do in life is worthwhile, our day to day emotional experiences of happiness and anxiety and our wider mental wellbeing.

Cancers linked to tobacco use comprise 40% of all cancer diagnoses, and cigarette smoking is linked to 30% of all cancer related deaths nationwide.

Relationships are all important in fueling positive emotions, whether they are work-related, familial, romantic, or platonic. 

The concentration of IL-6 cytokine is usually very low or non-detectable in young adults though levels increase in old age and are very high in the elderly: elevated IL-6 associated with cognitive impairment, low locomotion, depression, disability and mortality in older adults.

High serum levels are associated with cognitive impairment, low locomotion, and depression.

Postpartum urinary incontinence is experienced by about 33% of all women.

Despite substantial, therapeutic advances, diabetes related mortality has increased: it is still a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and amputation below the knee worldwide.

An average human adult has 30 billion fat cells with a weight of 30 lbs or 13.5 kg.

The main function of a lactation is to provide nutrition and immune protection to the young after birth.

In the first few days following childbirth, the risk of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relatively high as hypercoagulability increases during pregnancy and is maximal in the postpartum period.

Neonatalogists suggest that early skin-to-skin contact by placing the naked newborn baby on the mother’s chest is of benefit to both mother and infant (skin to skin contact).

More than 80% of individuals with prediabetes are overweight or have a BMI of 25 or greater.

In most studies, the optimal target goal for blood pressure management is a systolic blood pressure of less than 130 mm Hg.

Cherries may reduce both the acute and chronic inflammation associated with recurrent gout flares and its chronic destructive arthropathy.

Even minimal exposure to UV radiation can facilitate the degradation of skin collagen and lead to photoaging.

In the majority of prostate cancer cases currently diagnosed, the disease is localized, with only approximately 7% of patients with metastatic disease.

The Apgar score is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five criteria: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (APGAR).

Linea nigra is often referred to as a pregnancy line, is a linear hyperpigmentation that commonly appears on the abdomen.

People with an autotelic personality have a greater preference for high-action-opportunities , high-skills situations that stimulate them and encourage growth compared to those without an autotelic personality. It is in such high-challenge, high-skills situations that people are most likely to experience flow.

The estimated hereditability of coronary artery disease ranges from 40-60%.

Stress can be countered by social connection, spirituality, and, for men more clearly than for women, married life, all of which are associated with longevity.

Loneliness carries a higher mortality risk than smoking.

The  United States has the  highest or near-highest prevalence of obesity, car accidents, infant mortality, heart and lung disease, sexually transmitted infections, adolescent pregnancies, injuries, and homicides.

Among the main causes for female infertility, tubal factors account for 25-35% of cases.

Hair grows in cycles of various phases: anagen is the growth phase; catagen is the involuting or regressing phase; and telogen, the resting or quiescent phase.

Butyrate helps to repair the damage that pesticides, toxins, processed foods, drugs, and more have done to the lining of the gut. 

The microbiome is responsible for creating the right immune cells and cell responses to different threats, maintaining the integrity of the intestinal wall, and producing the right nutrients to maintain homeostasis in the gut.

The digestive tract the most susceptible part of the body to inflammation and disease: most of our immune cells and the microbes that regulate those immune responses live in our digestive tract. 

Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status.

Positive emotions in well-being: range of feelings, not just happiness and joy, but emotions like excitement, satisfaction, pride and awe: are frequently seen as connected to positive outcomes, such as longer life and healthier social relationships.

Different types of well-being are distinguished: mental well-being, physical well-being, economic well-being or emotional well-being.

It is the narcissism in us that leads to the dread appearing stupid or incompetent.

Dietary fiber in food promotes satiety and reduced food intake and may explain the association between fiber intake and lower body weight.

The postnatal period is the most critical and most neglected phase in the lives of mothers and babies; most maternal and newborn deaths occur during this period.

People with a serious mental illness are responsible for less than 4% of all the violent acts committed in the United States.

The total economic cost to society of addiction is greater than that of all types of diabetes and all cancers combined.

Short chain fatty acids play an important role in maintaining overall health, particularly with respect to energy metabolism, immune function, and gut health.

Wilms tumor is a form of kidney cancer that primarily develops in children:nearly all cases it will diagnosed before age 10.

The X chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes. Humans and most mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have X and Y chromosomes.

Abnormal uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age is experienced by approximately 1/3 of all women throughout their lifetime.

The leading causes of death among Black Americans and White Americans are diseases of the heart, whereas those among Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans are malignant neoplasms.

Parenchyma of the brain is made up of 80% water.

The average weight of the male brain is 1,336 gms and the female brain is 1,198 gms.

The weight of the brain decreases in advancing age.

Women in the United States, today, are more likely to die in childbirth than were their mothers and grandmothers.

More than 90% of the people in the US exceed recommended limit on sodium intake across almost all age groups.

Brain-The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consists of at least 60% fat.

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