IPV vaccine is greater than 99% effective after the recommended three doses.
IPV uses killed wild type poliovirus to induce what is believed to be lifelong immunity in the bloodstream.
Because it is inactivated, IPV cannot cause polio virus infection.
As the transmission of wild poliovirus is interrupted, discontinuance of oral poliovirus vaccine occurs because of the potential for the vaccine virus to acquire neurovirulence and transmission characteristics of the wild virus, which can lead the endemic and epidemic disease.
Oral polio vaccine is associated with vaccine derived polio viruses, particularly circulating viruses, which are Sabin strain viruses that have acquired neurovirulence, and the capacity to circulate.
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) which was previously used in the US and it still administered in many other countries is about 95% effective after three doses.
Oral polio vaccine uses a weakened polio virus strain to induce immunity in the digestive tract and thought to provide lifelong protection.
In rare cases, the weekend virus in OPV regains its ability to infect the nervous system and results in symptomatic polio in one and 3 million vaccinees.
This reverted virus is also excreted and passed’ from person to person and probably accounts for the case of polio virus in Rockland county in 2022.
Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis from oral polio vaccine will disappear with the cessation of the use of a oral vaccines.
The rarest risk associated with oral polio vaccine is chronic vaccine derived polio virus excretion by people with primary T-cell immune disorders.
Advisory Committee On Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends: 4 dose IPV series administered at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months and 4-6 years, a final dose of the series should be administered at approximately 4 years regardless of the number of previous doses, the minimal interval from dose to be to dose for 6 months, with minimal interval from dose one to dose two and from dose two to dose 3 is 4 weeks, and the minimum age for dose one remains age 6 weeks.
When DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel) is utilized doses at age 2, 4, 6, 15-18 months an additional booster at age 4-6 years is recommended.