Plastic surgery

The medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function.

Cosmetic/aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery.

The most common plastic surgery is not cosmetic.

Includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns.

In plastic surgery, skin grafting is a very common procedure.

Plastic surgery promotes careful planning of incisions at the lines of natural skin folds, appropriate choice of wound closure and suture materials, and early removal of exposed sutures.

Reconstructive plastic surgery corrects impairments by burns; trauma, congenital abnormalities, developmental abnormalities, infection and disease, and tumors.

Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance.

The most common reconstructive procedures include: surgical removal of tumors, repairs of, lacerations, scars, hand surgery, and breast reduction.

Other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burns, and nose and ear procedures.

Microsurgery is used to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available.

Free flaps of skin, muscle, bone, fat, or a combination may be moved to other sites on the body, and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins.

Cosmetic surgery, referred to as aesthetic plastic surgery, employs medical or surgical techniques intended to maintain normal appearance, or restore or enhance it beyond the average level toward some aesthetic ideal.

Nineteen of the procedures performed are surgical.

The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal.

Surgical procedures include: Breast augmentations by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was initially performed on women with small breasts

Reduction mammoplasty refers to thevremoval of skin and glandular tissue to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with very large breasts and/or for psychological benefit men with gynecomastia.

Mastopexy refers to the lifting or reshaping of breasts.

Buttock augmentation enhances the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting.

Buttock lift refers to lifting, and tightening of the buttocks by excision of redundant skin.

Chemical peels minimize skin changes of acne, chicken pox, scars, wrinkles, age spots, freckles, and photodamage.

Labiaplasty: refers to the surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia.

Lip enhancement.


Otoplasty or reshaping of the ear.

Rhytidectomy refers tow “face lift: removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face.

Browplasty: elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin

Midface lift: tightening of the cheeks

Chin augmentation: augmentation of the chin with an implant

Cheek augmentation: implants to the cheek

Orthognathic surgery: manipulation of the facial bones through controlled fracturing

Fillers, injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections

Laser Skin Rejuvenation or Resurfacing

Liposuction: removal of fat deposits

Brachioplasty: reducing excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow

Plastic surgery subspecialties include:



Craniofacial plastic surgery

Craniofacial surgery is divided into pediatric and adult craniofacial surgery.

Pediatric craniofacial surgery revolves around the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues.

Adult craniofacial surgery deals with fractures and secondary surgeries such as orbital reconstruction along with orthognathic surgery.

Hand surgery is concerned with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems,.

Microsurgery deals with the reconstruction of missing tissues by transferring other tissues to the reconstruction site and reconnecting blood vessels and nerves and include breast and head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery and brachial plexus surgery.

Pediatric plastic surgery is a specialty of treating craniofacial anomalies, cleft lip and palate and congenital hand deformities.

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