Physical inactivity

See sedentary lifestyle

Estimated to account for 6-12% of all deaths.

4th leading cause of death worldwide.

A major modifiable risk factor for all-cause mortality.

A highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 40 major non-communicable chronic diseases.

Estimated $117 billion in annual health care costs in about 10% of premature mortality are associated with inadequate physical activity.

WHO and Centers for Disease Control have estimated that physical inactivity accounts for approximately 8% to 9% of premature mortality.

May be greatest threat to health in 21st century.

Estimated at 9.4% of all 57 million deaths in the world in 2008 could be attributed to physical inactivity, translating into more than 5 million deaths worldwide.

80% of US adults and adolescents do not presently accumulate sufficient physical activity for optimum health.

Half of US adults spend more than 9.5 hours of the day sitting, including more than 80% of their leisure time.

Remaining sedentary for more than 12 hours daily is linked with a higher risk of death and being sedentary for eight hours, but a little more than 20 minutes of exercise closed the gap.

Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METs or less while in a sitting or reclining posture.

WHO recommends adults to participate in at least 150 min. of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week, to reduce the risk of clonic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and certain cancers.

Aerobic capacity, as an indicator of physical fitness and function, decreases 10-33% over a 12 week period of chemotherapy for breast and other cancers (Winter-Stone KM).

Physical inactivity has a deleterious effect comparable to smoking and obesity.

Almost 30% of adults aged ≥50 years are sedentary, which may be due in part to the fact that many older adults have existing disability and comorbid medical conditions that make it difficult to



Physical inactivity increases the risk of lumbar radicular pain in abdominally obese individuals, but not in persons with normal weight circumference.

Physical inactivity, characterized by prolonged sitting and a low step count, elevates postprandial plasma lipids and thus risk of disease.

A leading remediable cause of death in the United States

Sedentary activities defined as those that incur no more than 1.5 metabolic equivalents and include sitting and lying behaviors.

Increased mortality occurs in older women with impaired mobility.

Sedentary behaviors are distinct from inactivity, which refers to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity (3 or greater metabolic equivalents).

Viewing television for more than seven hours a day is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to those who watch less than one hour per day (Matthews CE).

A US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey examining 7 days of accelerometer data from 1714 adults in the 20-59 years showed that the vast majority of daily non-sleeping time is spent in either sedentary behavior, 58%, or light intensity activity such as strolling, washing dishes, and gardening, 39%, and only 3% in health enhancing physical activity kind (Owen N et al).

The average American spends 9-10 hours of their day sitting, and certain occupations, such as telecommunications employees, spend an average of 12 hours sitting each day.

About 36% of adults engage in no leisure time physical activity.

In patients with multiple chronic conditions is associated with twice the rate of mortality over a 42 month follow-up period than that of more active people.

There has been an significant decline in energy expenditure and occupation related and household management which plays a fundamental role in body weight and overall obesity.

Inactivity especially in occupational and household physical activity over the past five decades is the primary cause of the obesity epidemic.

Accounts for 22% of coronary artery disease, 22% of colon cancer, 18% of osteoporotic fractures, 12% of diabetes and hypertension, and 5% of breast cancer.

Physical inactivity is associated with an increased insulin resistance.

Accounts for 6-10% of the global premature mortality from cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, colon and breast cancer.

The estimated risk of Alzheimer’s disease is approximately 20% for physical inactivity and is higher than for education, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and depression.

The number of sedentary jobs in the US increased by 83 percent.

Physically active jobs represented 50 percent of the workforce in 1960, and it makes up less than 20 percent today.

In childhood is associated with a doubling of childhood obesity in the past 20 years.

Associated with higher morbidity and mortality from all causes including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

12.2% of myocardial infarction in the world’s population attributed to impaired fitness.

Almost 1/3 of adults are inactive, and the proportion of inactivity is increasing in low income countries.

Low cardiorespiratory fitness affects 1 of 5 individuals aged 12-49 years in the U.S.

Eliminating low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity alone would reduce mortality by >20%.

High volumes of sitting time may be associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and malignancy.

Walking briskly 30 min. daily meets public health guidelines for health benefits, however this leaves 15 1/2 hours of non-exercising awake time each day, for which many adults have prolonged sitting-suggesting 30 min. of physical activity is as protective as 10 hours of sitting is harmful.

A meta-analysis of television viewing was associated with increased risks of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all cause mortality (Grantved A et al).

Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for all-cause mortality, independent of physical activity in a prospective questionnaire data from 222,497 individuals 45 years or older (van der Ploeg HP et al).

All-cause mortality is adversely associated with television viewing, recreational screen time, sitting during leisure time, sitting in the car, sitting during work and occupations involving prolonged sitting.

Physical inactivity is associated with chronic kidney disease prevalence.

Physical inactivity is associated with decrease in lean body mass

Lack of participation in any regular recreational physical activity is associated with a significantly increased risk for both bladder and renal cancers.

Sitting for too long increases your risk of death from virtually all health problems, from type 2 diabetes and heart disease to cancer and all-cause mortality.

People who walk around for just two minutes out of every hour spent sitting increased their lifespan by 33 percent compared to those who did not.

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