Most cases of acute pharyngitis are viral.

Accounts for 60% of outpatient visits (Alcaide ML).

Accounts for 1-2% of all the outpatient and emergency department visits in the United States.

Most cases due to respiratory viruses such associated rhinovirus, coronavirus and adenovirus.

Accounts for 6% of visits by children to pediatricians and family doctors.

Most common manifestation is sore throat.

The vast majority caused by viral infection.

Treatment does not shorten the duration of symptoms or reduce the risk of infectious sequelae.

Throat cultures traditionally has been the pref2241ed diagnostic method but clinical diagnosis and rapid diagnostic tests are reasonable alternatives.

Group A streptococcal phayngitis is most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis affects over a half billion people annually worldwide.

Group A streptococcal phayngitis is an antecedent for invasive streptoccal infetions and necrotizing fasciitis, and complications of rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease.

Group A-hemolytic streptococci cultured in 15-36% of children with sore throat.

Group A-hemolytic streptococci accounts for 5-10% of cases in adults.

Of the common causes of acute pharyngitis, streptococcal pharyngitis is the only one for which antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Physical examination is inadequate to distinguish Group A streptococcal phayngitis from other causes.

Centor clinical score helps to distinguish Group A streptococcal phayngitis from viral pharyngitis as does the McIsaac score.

Other bacterial infections associated with pharyngitis include: Corynebacterium, Arcanobacterium haemolyticicum, and Neisseria gonorrhea are much less common than streptococcal pharyngitis.

Fusobacterium necrophorum Is a common cause of pharyngitis in adolescents and young adults, and treatment to prevent Lemi2241e syndrome may be beneficial.

Streptococci groups C and G may cause pharyngitis.

Highest incidence occurs among children 5-15 years of age.

Acute pharyngitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the only commonly occurring cause of sore throat for which antibiotics are indicated.

Probability for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus if there is tonsillar exudates, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, fever and absence of cough.

Antibiotic treatment in group A streptococcal infection appropriate to prevent rheumatic fever, reduce suppurative complications, and decrease infectivity, alleviate clinical symptoms, and shorten clinical illness time.

Penicillin is the drug of choice in nonallergic patients with acute pharyngitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus.


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