Pentoxifylline (Trental)

A nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor.

Has antiinlammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

30% response rate in peripheral arterial disease claudication.

In vitro studies indicate HLA-DR expression inhibition and inhibition of glycoaminoglycan secretion by orbit fibroblasts.

May be beneficial for Graves’ ophthalmopathy, although its use did not show benefit (European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy).


Hemorheologic agents enhance blood flow by reducing  blood viscosity.


Pentoxifylline has been shown to relieve pain due to radiation fibrosis.


Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water to produce sugars from which other organic compounds can be constructed, and oxygen is produced as a by-product.


Pentoxifylline and its metabolites improve the flow properties of blood by decreasing its viscosity.


This increases blood flow to the affected microcirculation and enhances tissue oxygenation.




The precise mode of action of pentoxifylline and the sequence of events leading to clinical improvement remain undefined.

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