Particulate matter

A heterogeneous mixture that includes chemicals, metals and soils.

It is a air pollutants contributing to multiple poor health outcomes.

Small particles are able to reach deep into the lungs and can cause the greatest harm.

Levels in air associated with risk of death from all causes and from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses.

Particulate air pollution linked to increased cardiovascular disease.

Association between particulate matters of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and increased risk of all cause death and cardiovascular.

Particles less than 2.5 µm in diameter pose the greatest risk to human health and geographic variability is a powerful predictor of COPD frequency and severity.

Atmospheric particular matter is a strong predictor of COPD exacerbations during wildfire events during and after those events PM2.5 levels can go as high as six fold higher than is normal.

An increase PM2.5 is associated with increased COPD hospitalizations and COPD mortality.

Particles less than 10µm in diameter such as dust, pollen, and mold, can get deep into the lungs and particles as small as 2. 5 µm including combustion products, organic matter, and heavy metals, can cross the pulmonary epithelium into the systemic circulation.

Toxicology evidence indicates that the annual exposure of PM 2.5 causes premature death at ambient concentrations as low as 11 µg per cubic meter.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm/mm³ should not exceed an annual average of 12 µg per cubic meter and the 24 hour average of 35 µg per cubic meter.

Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) indicated strong relationship of nonfatal cardiovascular events with fine particulate concentrations.

Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) a prospective study of postmenopausal women indicated that exposure to increased concentrations of fine particulate air pollution was associated with increased risk of first cardiovascular events, including nonfatal and fatal, coronary and cerebrovascular types.

Associations between particulate matter and respiratory related morbidity and mortality may be greater in persons with preexisting respiratory diseases.

Diesel engines generate more than 100 times the number of particles per distance traveled than gasoline engines of similar size, and contribute in a major way to particulate pollution.

Approximately 90% of urban area traffic generated particulate pollution comes from diesel exhausts.

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