Ovarian mass

Majority of ovarian masses are non-neoplastic cysts.

Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality in evaluation.

May represent physiologic cysts or benign or malignant neoplasms.

Ovarian tumors account for 1% of all neoplasms in children and adolescents: 75-85% of such lesions are benign.

Malignant ovarian masses should be considered in patients with solid ovarian features, in patients with cystic and solid components on ultrasound and in pre-menarchal girls with any ovarian cysts and associated signs or symptoms of hormonal stimulation, and in those girls with functional cysts that do not resolve over time.

Approximately 15% of ovarian cystic lesions are neoplastic.

Ovarian neoplasms are categorized as epithelial cell, germ cell, or stromal cell.

The most common neoplasm in adolescence is the mature, or benign teratoma, also called a dermoid cyst.

Serous and mucinous cystadenomas are epithelial tumors are the second most common benign ovarian tumors in adolescence.

Benign serous cystadenomas, in general, are the most common ovarian neoplasms in women.

Patients with an ovarian mass may be asymptomatic, or have abdominal pain, may have increased abdominal girth, nausea, vomiting, dysuria, urinary retention, urinary frequency, constipation, weight-loss, menstrual abnormalities, dyspnea, orthopnea, hypotension, hydronephrosis, or pleural effusion.

In children ovarian masses may be associated with torsion, hemorrhage, and ovarian rupture.

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