Olive oil


Olive oil refers the liquid fat extracted by pressing olives.


It is obtained from olives, the fruit of Olea europaea of the family Oleaceae, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.


It is produced by pressing whole olives and extracting the oil. 

It is commonly used in cooking, for frying foods or as a salad dressing, in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. 


It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps.


Olive oil forms one of the three staple food plants of Mediterranean cuisine, the other two being wheat (as in pasta, bread, and couscous) and the grape, used as a dessert fruit and for wine.


Saturated fats content 


Palmitic acid: 13.0%


Stearic acid: 1.5%


Unsaturated fats


Total unsaturated > 85%




Oleic acid: 70.0%


Palmitoleic acid: 0.3-3.5%




Linoleic acid: 15.0%


Alpha-Linolenic acid: 0.5%



Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)

3,700 kJ (880 kcal)


Its composition  varies with the cultivar, altitude, time of harvest and extraction process. 


Up to 83% of olive oil is oleic acid, with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid, up to 21%, and palmitic acid, up to 20%.



Virgin olive oil means the oil is produced by the use of mechanical means only, with no chemical treatment.

Virgin connotes the olives have been pressed to extract the oil; no heat or chemicals have been used during the extraction process, and the oil is pure and unrefined. 

Cold pressed olive oil, indicates oil was not heated over a certain temperature during processing, thus retaining more nutrients and undergoing less degradation.


Virgin olive oils contain the highest levels of polyphenols, which are antioxidants linked with better health.

Olive Oil, which is sometimes denoted as made from refined and virgin olive oils.

Virgin olive oil is a lesser grade of virgin oil, with free acidity of up to 2.0%, has  a good taste, but may include some sensory defects.



Extra virgin olive oil is required to have no more than 0.8% free acidity and is considered to have favorable flavor characteristics.



Extra virgin olive oil and Virgin olive oil therefore cannot contain any refined oil.


Extra virgin olive oil is the highest grade of virgin oil derived by cold mechanical extraction without use of solvents or refining methods.

Extra virgin olive oil is the highest grade available, followed by virgin olive oil. 

Extra virgin olive oil has a superior taste, some fruitiness and no defined sensory defects.

Extra virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries; and the percentage is far higher in the Mediterranean countries.


Olive oil has long been a common ingredients in Mediterranean cuisine, including ancient Greek and Roman cuisine. 



Olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application. 



As olives mature their color changes from green to violet, and then black. 


After the first year, olive oil is more suitable for cooking than serving raw.

The taste of the olive oil varies by the variety used,  time when harvested and ground.

Topical treatment with olive oil may damages the skin barrier, and may make existing atopic dermatitis worse. 


Olive oil is not recommended for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage.

Applying olive oil to the skin does not help prevent or reduce stretch marks.


Olive fruits changes color from green to violet, and then black. 


Olive oil is an important cooking oil.



Extra virgin olive oil is mostly used as a salad dressing or as an ingredient in salad dressings. 



It is also used with foods to be eaten cold. 



If heated, its flavor is stronger. 


It also can be used for sautéing.

When extra virgin olive oil is heated above 210–216 °C (410–421 °F), the unrefined particles within the oil are burned, leading to a deteriorated taste. 


The flavor and fragrance of olive oil may deteriorate when heated for a long time.


Refined olive oils are used for deep frying because of their higher smoke point and milder flavor.



Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from any grade of virgin olive oil by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.


Refined olive oil is virgin oil that has been refined using charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.

Refined olive oil has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams.

Refined olive oil attempts to eliminate high acidity or organoleptic defects. 

Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are primarily refined olive oil.

Refining removes color, odor and flavor from the olive oil, and leaves behind a very pure form of olive oil that is tasteless, colorless and odorless and extremely low in free fatty acids. 



Extra virgin olive oil has a smoke point well above the standard temperatures required for cooking, and its resistance to oxidation is higher than most cooking oils due to the antioxidant and mono-unsaturated fat content.



The smoke point is higher in good extra-virgin olive oil and lower in low-quality virgin olive oil.



The taste of the olive oil is influenced by : the variety, time of harvest,  and ground.



It is a natural and safe lubricant, and can be used to lubricate kitchen equipment.

 Can also be used for illumination in lamps or as the base for soaps and detergents.

Some cosmetics have olive oil as their base.



Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. 



The oil produced by only physical, mechanical, means is called virgin oil. 



Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that has low free acidity, and no or very little organoleptic defects.



Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene and sterols.



Fatty acid



Oleic acid Monounsaturated 55 to 83%.



Linoleic acid Polyunsaturated 3.5 to 21%.



Palmitic acid Saturated 7.5 to 20%.



Stearic acid Saturated 0.5 to 5%


Alpha-Linolenic acid Polyunsaturated 0 to 1.5%

Olive oil contains traces of phenolics which give extra virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, and are also implicated in its aroma.


Olive oil composition varies with type, altitude, time of harvest and extraction processes.


Olive cultivars, each of which have a particular flavor, texture, and shelf life that make them more or less suitable for different applications, such as direct human consumption on bread or in salads, indirect consumption in domestic cooking or catering, or industrial uses such as animal feed or engineering applications.


Spain accounts for almost half of global olive oil production: Other major producers are Italy, Tunisia, Greece and Turkey.

Per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Italy and Spain.


Olive oil-Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)


3,699 kJ (884 kcal)


0 g



100 g


14 g



73 g





11 g





0.8 g





9.8 g





0 g





Quantity %DV



Vitamin E 93% 14 mg



Vitamin K 57% 60 ?g



Minerals Quantity %DV






4% 0.56 mg



One tablespoon of olive oil (13.5 g) contains:



Calories: 119



Fat: 13.5 g, 21% of the Daily Value, DV)



Saturated fat: 2 g, 9% of DV)



Carbohydrates: 0



Fibers: 0



Protein: 0



Vitamin E: 1.9 mg, 10% of DV



Vitamin K: 8.1 mg, 10% of DV



Limited evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. 


Definitive relationship has not been established for consumption of olive oil and maintaining normal blood concentrations of triglycerides, normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and normal blood glucose concentrations.

To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the overall number of calories consumed in a day.

Olive oil protects  by its polyphenols against oxidation of blood lipids, and for maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with oleic acid.

A definitive cause-and-effect relationship has not been adequately established for consumption of olive oil and maintaining normal blood concentrations of triglycerides, normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and normal blood glucose concentrations.

A meta-analysis concluded that increased consumption of olive oil was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and stroke, while monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin showed no significant effects.

Compared with men and women who rarely or never consumed olive oil, those who consumed greater than 0.5 tablespoon/day or more than 7 g/day had a 19% lower mortality risk over a 28-year follow-up, starting from an average age of 56 years.

Moreover, compared with those with the lowest olive oil intake, those with the highest intake had a 19% lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, a 17% lower risk of dying from cancer, a 29% lower risk of dying from neurodegenerative disease, and an 18% lower risk of dying from respiratory disease during follow-up.

Another meta-analysis found high-polyphenol olive oil intake was associated with improved measures of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and oxidized LDL when compared to low-polyphenol olive oils.

A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that increased consumption of olive oil was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and stroke.




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