Oily fish



See ((Fish oil))

Oily fish are fish species with oil in soft tissues and icoelomic cavity around the gut. 

Oily fish fillets may contain up to 30% oil.

The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA is cold-water oily fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines.

Oils from these oily fish have around seven times as much omega-3 oils as omega-6 oils. 


Fish do not synthesize omega-3 fatty acids: they obtain them from the algae or plankton in their diets.



Oily fish include:  small forage fish such as sardines, herring and anchovies, and other larger fish such as salmon, trout, tuna, swordfish, and mackerel, 



Oily fish can be contrasted with whitefish, which contain oil only in the liver and in much less overall quantity than oily fish: cod, haddock and flatfish. 



White fish are usually fish which live on or near the seafloor, whereas oily fish live in the water column away from the bottom.



Oily fish meat is a good source of important fat-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin A and D, and is rich in omega-3 fatty acids.



White  fish also contain these nutrients but at a much lower concentration.



The consumption of oily fish rather than white fish is more beneficial to humans, particularly concerning cardiovascular diseases.



Oily fish are known to carry higher levels of contaminants (such as mercury or dioxin),  than whitefish.



Among other benefits, studies suggest that the omega-3 fatty acids in oily fish may help improve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.



Fish consumption decreases the risk of dementia.



British Medical Journal (BMJ) followed 1,674 elderly residents of southern France for seven years: The conclusion was that people who ate fish at least once a week had a significantly lower risk of being diagnosed with dementia over a seven-year period. 



Consuming 200-400 g of oily fish twice per week may also help prevent sudden death due to myocardial infarction by preventing cardiac arrhythmia.



The eicosapentaenoic acid found in fish oils appears to dramatically reduce inflammation through conversion within the body to resolvins, with beneficial effects for the cardiovascular system and arthritis. acid found in fish oils appears to dramatically reduce inflammation through conversion within the body to resolvins, with beneficial effects for the cardiovascular system and arthritis.



Recommended that people eat at least two portions of fish per week, one of which should be oily fish.



Recommended minimum and maximum quantities of oily fish to be eaten per week, to balance the beneficial qualities of the omega-3 fatty acids against the potential dangers of ingesting polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. 



It is advised eating no more than four portions per week of fish and no more than two portions for people who are pregnant, may become pregnant or who are breastfeeding.



The EPA Exposure Reference Dose (RfI) for methylmercury (MeHg) is 0.1 micrograms per kg body weight per day. 



The corresponding limit of blood mercury is 5.8 micrograms per liter. 



The restrictions apply to certain oily fish: marlin, swordfish, shark and, to a lesser extent, tuna.



The recommendations on maximum consumption of oily fish were up to four portions a week for men, boys, and women past childbearing age, and up to two portions a week for women of childbearing age, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, and girls. 



There is no recommended limit on the consumption of white fish.



The EPA and  U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines sets a limit on consumption of fatty fish with greater than one part per million of methylmercury: tilefish, king mackerel, shark and swordfish.



Nursing/pregnant women and children under the age of six, should completely avoid fish with high risk of mercury contamination and limit consumption of moderate and low-mercury fish to 12 ounces or less per week



Albacore tuna should be limited to six ounces or less per week


Oily fish linked to lower risk of diabetes.

 People who report regularly eating oily fish had a significantly reduced risk for developing type 2 diabetes in a prospective, observational study of nearly 400,000 UK residents.

A study with a median follow-up was just over 10 years, during which 7,262 participants developed diabetes.

Positive link between regular use of fish oil supplements and a drop in the incidence of type 2 diabetes, but the studyfailed to show a significant link between consumption of non-oily fish and type 2 diabetes onset.

Participants who ate either one, or two or more, servings of oily fish weekly each had a significant 22% lower rate of incident type 2 diabetes than that of those who ate no oily fish.

Those who reported regularly taking a fish oil supplement had a significant 9% lower incidence of type 2 diabetes than that of those who didn’t.

Consuming nonfried seafood, especially species higher in long-chain n-3 fatty acids, one to two times per week for cardiovascular benefits, including reduced risk of cardiac death, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke.

Cold-water oily fish such as salmon, anchovies, herring, mackerel, tuna and sardines have the highest levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, notably eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, also collectively known as omega-3 fatty acids.

Fish oil supplements for preventing CVD events: some studies reporting no discernible effect while others indicate efficacy.

REDUCE-IT trial showed clear benefit for preventing CVD using a highly purified form of fish oil, icosapent ethyl (Vascepa).

STRENGTH and OMENI studies, failed to show CVD benefits from more conventional fish oil formulations.



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