Nurses’ Health Study

Predominantly white, 93.7%, 2% black, 0.7% Asian, 3.6% other or unknown registered in 1976 and surveyed periodically.

Women taking estrogen only pills for at least 15 years have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but no increase was found for those who took the hormonal treatment for less than 10 years.

Followed 28,835 postmenopausal women who had a hysterectomy and only 3.4% of women developed breast cancer during the course of the study.

Physical activity after the diagnosis of breast cancer associated with a reduction in total and breast cancer mortality and recurrence.

Among 18,766 women with highest levels of physical activity there was improved cognitive scores over 2 years.

In the Nurses’ Health Study 2/3 of SCD victims had no history of cardiac disease.

Nurses’ Health Study, prospective observational study of 105,986 women: increasing alcohol consumption increased breast cancer risk as low levels of 5.0-9.9 g per day, equivalent to 3-6 drinks per week, and increased risk related to cumulative alcohol intake throughout adult life.

NHS II with 60,000 participants demonstrated that women who had gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in their first pregnancy are 2-3 times more likely later to develop chronic hypertension compared with women who had normal blood pressures in their first pregnancy.

NHS and Health Professional Follow-up Study involving 127,536 individuals indicated a strong positive association between the intake of food rich in refined starches and added sugars with 10% relative risk increase of coronary heart disease.

NHS study revealed a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among regular uses of low-dose aspirin and an increased risk with long-term high quantity NSAIDs..

Nurses’s Health Study II cohort of 90,476 premenopausal women followed for 22 years and found that those who ate the most fruit during adolescence (about 3 servings a day) compared with those who ate the lowest intakes (0.5 servings a day) had a 25% lower risk of developing breast cancer. 


There was a significant reduction in breast cancer in women who had eaten higher intakes of apples, bananas, grapes, and corn during adolescence, and oranges and kale during early adulthood. 


Nurses’s Health Study II over 20 years and found that higher fiber intakes during adolescence and early adulthood were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer later in life. 


In the Nurses’ Health Study, intake of trans fats before menopause was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer after menopause.

Effect of trans fat information on CAD comes from the Nurses’ Health Study – a cohort study that has been following 120,000 female nurses since its inception in 1976: found that a nurse’s CAD risk roughly doubled for each 2% increase in trans fat calories consumed.


In analysis of 56,374 participants enrolled in the Nurses Health Study and the Health Professionals follow up study CRC screening, found mortality  benefits of screening beyond age 75 patients  in good health may be warranted.

The Nurses’ Health Study – a cohort study that has been following 120,000 female nurses since its inception in 1976, determined that a nurse’s CAD risk roughly doubled for each 2% increase in trans fat calories consumed. instead of carbohydrate calories.

For each 5% increase in saturated fat calories, instead of carbohydrate calories, there was a 17% increase in CAD risk.

NHS revealed increased early onset colorectal cancers with increased intake of sweetened beverages.

NHS found that recent weight loss was associated with a significantly higher rate of cancer during next 12 months compared with those without recent weight loss: gastrointestinal cancers were particularly common.




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