Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFKB1 gene.

Gene location Chromosome 4

This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein.

The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor.

The 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) protein complex.

NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various stimuli including: cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products.

Activated NF-κB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of a variety of genes.

These genes are involved in a wide variety of biological functions.

There are over 200 known genes that are targets of NF-κB.

The inappropriate activation of NF-κB is associated with a number of inflammatory diseases.

The persistent inhibition of NF-κB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth.

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