Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with negative emotions. 

Neuroticism is one of the Big Five traits. 

High scoring individuals on neuroticism are more likely than average to experience: anxiety, worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy, jealousy, pessimism, guilt, depressed mood, and loneliness.

High scoring individuals on neuroticism are thought to respond worse to stressors and are more likely to interpret ordinary situations, such as minor frustrations, as appearing hopelessly difficult. 

Behavioral responses with neuroticism may include procrastination, substance use, and other maladaptive behaviors.

These behaviors may aid in relieving negative emotions and generating positive ones.

Individuals with high scores on the neuroticism index are at risk of developing common mental disorders: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders: symptoms traditionally referred to as neuroses

Patients with low scores in neuroticism tend to be more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress, tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. 

Patients with low scores in neuroticism are low in negative emotion, but  not necessarily high in positive emotion. 

Being high in scores of positive emotion is generally an element of the independent traits of extraversion and agreeableness.

Neurotic extraverts, experience high levels of both positive and negative emotional states, an emotional roller coaster.

Neuroticism has tendency for quick arousal when stimulated and slow relaxation from arousal, especially with regard to negative emotional arousal. 

Emotional instability and negativity or maladjustment, in contrast to emotional stability and positivity, or good adjustment is associated with neuroticism.

Neurocitism is associated with lack of self-control and poor ability to manage psychological stress.

Neurotic traits: anxiety, envy, jealousy, and moodiness.

Neuroticism’s behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is related to sensitivity to punishment as well as avoidance motivation.

Neuroticism’s behavioral activation system (BAS) is related to sensitivity to reward as well as approach motivation. 

Neuroticism has been found to be positively correlated with the BIS scale, and negatively correlated with the BAS scale.

Neuroticism is one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluation of one’s appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

Neuroticism is highly correlated with the startle reflex in response to fearful conditions.

Neuroticism is inversely correlated with response to disgusting or repulsive stimuli. 

Neuroticism may increase vigilance where evasive action is possible but promotes emotional blunting when escape is not a choice.

The  startle reflex can predict the trait neuroticism with good accuracy.

The startle reflex is a reflex in response to a loud noise that one typically has no control over, though anticipation can reduce the effect. 

The strength of the reflex as well as the time until the reflex ceases can be used to predict both neuroticism and extraversion.

Neuroticism scales overlap with instruments used to assess mental disorders like anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and especially major depressive disorder.

A wide range of clinical mental disorders are associated with elevated levels of neuroticism compared to levels in the general population.

High neuroticism is predictive for the development of anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, psychosis, and schizophrenia, and is predictive but less so for substance use and non-specific mental distress.

Neuroticism has also been found to be associated with older age. 

Among older men, upward trends in neuroticism over life as well as increased neuroticism overall both contributed to higher mortality rates.

Disorders associated with elevated neuroticism: mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and hypochondriasis. 

Mood disorders tend to have a much larger association with neuroticism than most other disorders.

Children and adolescents with high neuroticism are anxious, vulnerable, tense, easily frightened, fall apart under stress, guilt-prone, moody, low in frustration tolerance, and insecure in relationships with others,

Neuroticism includes both traits concerning negative emotions as well as the response to these negative emotions.

Neuroticism in adults associated with the frequency of self-reported problems.

Neuroticism is the product of  interplay between genetic and environmental influences. 

Heritability estimates of neuroticism typically ranges from 40% to 60%.

Environmental influences: adversities during development such as emotional neglect and sexual abuse are positively associated with neuroticism.

Neuroticism levels change throughout the lifespan as a function of personality maturation and social roles, but also the expression of new genes.

Neuroticism decreases as a result of maturity by decreasing through age 40 and then leveling off.

The influence of environments on neuroticism increases over the lifespan.

Certain genes appear to be related to neuroticism: the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region gene known as 5-HTTLPR, which is transcribed into a serotonin transporter that removes serotonin.

The presence of the s-variant 5-HTTLPR has been found to result in higher amygdala activity from seeing angry or fearful faces while doing a non-emotional task.

A meta-analysis of 14 studies has shown that the s-variant 5-HTTLPR gene has a moderate effect size and accounts for 10% of the phenotypic difference: cognitive control and stress may moderate the effect of the gene. 

Another gene related to neuroticism is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene.

Dysregulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, glucocorticoid system, and influence of the serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism in combination with environmental effects like the quality of upbringing.

Neuroimaging studies with fMRI have found that increased activity in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions associated with arousal, is correlated with high neuroticism scores, as is activation of the associations have also been found with the medial prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, and hippocampus: other studies have found no correlations.

Levels of neuroticism are higher in women than men.

Neuroticism is also found to decrease slightly with age.

Cross-cultural studies have revealed higher levels of female neuroticism across almost all nations.

in the US, neuroticism is highest in the mid-Atlantic states and southwards but declines westward, while openness to experience is highest in ethnically diverse regions of the mid-Atlantic, New England, the West Coast, and cities. 

In the UK neuroticism is lowest in urban areas. 

There are correlations between low neuroticism and entrepreneurship and economic vitality and correlations between high neuroticism and poor health outcomes. 

A high level of neuroticism in young adults is a risk factor for triggering mood disorders, and  a possible risk factor for developing an addiction disorder to internet.

There is a strong correlation between bruxism and neuroticism. 

Neuroticism is also involved in maladaptive behaviors to regulate an individual’s emotions.

High levels of neuroticism in an individual is associated with anxiety and overthinking, as well as irritability, impulsiveness, a shortened life span, a greater likelihood of divorce, and a lack of education.

High levels of neuroticism individuals may engage in maladaptive forms of coping, such as procrastination, and substance abuse. 

Neuroticism often relates to difficulties with emotion regulation, leading to engagement in divergent behaviors.

Due to the facets associated with neuroticism, it can be viewed as a negative personality trait. 

Anxiety, one of the facets of neuroticism can lead to indulgence in anxiety-based maladaptive and risky behaviors. 

Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism may prefer short-term solutions, such as risky behaviors, and neglect the long-term costs. 

Neuroticism it is associated with impulsivity: called urgency, which is a predisposition to experiencing strong impulses that can lead to impulsive behavior, while dealing with the negative emotions attached. 

Urgency can be both negative and positive; positive urgency deals with positive emotions and the contrast for negative urgency.

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