Muscle cramps

Refers to an involuntary and foreseeable contraction of the muscle.

A muscle spasm that is forceful and sustained and is referred  to as a cramp.

A muscle cramp may result in a visible or palpable hardening of the involved muscle.

May last seconds or up to 15 minutes or so.

Recurred multiple times during the day.

May involve part of the muscle, the entire muscle or group of muscles that usually active together and antagonist muscle groups as well.

Estimated that 95% of the popultion experiences a cramp at some point.

Increse with age, and experienced commonly by adults, but children may have muscle cramps as well.

All skeletal muscles can xperience cramping but the legs, calves, feet and hands are particularly vulnerable.

May be associated with excercise, low calcium levels, hypoparathyroidism, malabsorption, acute alkalosis, hyperventilation, chronic renal insufficiency, water depletion, salt depletion, diarrhea, neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and hyponatremia.

Nocturnal leg cramps linked with the use of long acting inhaled beta two agonists, potassium sparing diuretics and thiazide like diuretics.

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