Part of the natural environment.

Outdoors molds break down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees.

Indoor mold growth should be avoided.

Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores.

The spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through the air.

Mold may begin growing indoors when spores land on moist surfaces.

All types of mold require moisture for growth.


Mold spores are a common component of household and workplace dust.

In large amounts can be a health hazard, potentially causing allergic reactions and respiratory problems.

Some molds produce mycotoxins that can pose serious health risks, and are ref2242ed to as Toxic mold.

Exposure to high levels of mycotoxins can lead to neurological problems and death.

Symptoms of mold exposure may include:

Nasal and sinus congestion; runny nose

Eye irritation; itchy, red, watery eyes

Respiratory problems, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing, chest tightness


Throat irritation

Skin irritation


Persistent sneezing


Infants may develop respiratory symptoms as a result of exposure to Penicillium, a fungal genus.

Increased exposure to mold increases the probability of developing respiratory symptoms during the first year of life, and there is a correlation between the probability of developing asthma and exposure to Penicillium.

Mold exposure has a variety of health effects.

Mold exposure associated with varying sensitivities by individuals.

May cause throat irritation, nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, cough and wheezing and skin irritation.

Patients with chronic lung diseases are at higher risk for allergies, and experience more severe reactions when exposed to mold.

Indoor dampness environments correlate with upper-respiratory-tract symptoms, such as coughing and wheezing in people with asthma.

Found virtually everywhere, and can grow on almost any substance in the presence of moisture.

Mold reproduce by spores, which are carried by air currents.

When spores land on a moist surface suitable for life, they begin to grow.

Mold is normally found indoors at levels which do not affect most healthy individuals.

Common building materials are able to sustain mold growth.

Mold spores are ubiquitous, and growth in an indoor environment is typically related to water or moisture.

Flooding, leaky roofs, building-maintenance or indoor-plumbing problems can lead to

Interior mold growth can occur with flooding, leaky roofs, building-maintenance or indoor-plumbing problems.

Water vapor commonly condenses on surfaces cooler than the moisture-laden air, enabling mold to flourish, and passes through walls and ceilings, typically condensing during the winter in climates with a long heating season.

Floors over crawl spaces and basements, without vapor barriers or with dirt floors, are mold-prone.

Mold growth requires moisture, food sources and a substrate capable of sustaining growth.

Common building materials, such as plywood, drywall, carpets, and carpet padding, cardboard and the paper facing on drywall and organic matter such as soap, fabrics and dust-containing skin cells provide food for mold.

Food sources for mold in buildings include cellulose-based materials such as wood, cardboard and the paper facing on drywall and organic matter such as soap, fabrics and dust-containing skin cells.

In carpet, invisible dust and cellulose are food sources.

After water damage to a building, it grows in walls and then becomes dormant until subsequent high humidity.

Suitable conditions reactivate mold.

Mycotoxin levels are higher in buildings which have had a water damage.

It is detectable by smell and signs of water damage on walls or ceiling..

Mold can grow in places invisible to the human eye, such as behind wallpaper or paneling, on the inside of ceiling tiles, the back of drywall, or the underside of carpets or carpet padding.

Leaking pipes in walls may also be a source of mold causing moisture and condensation.

If a house has mold, the moisture may originate in the basement or crawl space, a leaking roof or a leak in plumbing pipes.

Insufficient ventilation may accelerate moisture buildup.

Spores require three things to grow into mold:

Nutrients such as cellulose the cell wall of green plants, is a common food for indoor spores.


Time: Mold growth begins from 24 hours to 10 days after the provision of growing conditions.

Mold colonies growing inside buildings is associated with inhalation of mycotoxins.

Visible mold colonies may occur where ventilation is poorest and on perimeter walls.

Intermittent home mold may reflect the house is too airtight or too drafty.

Mold problems accelerate in airtight homes more frequently in the warmer months when humidity is high and moisture is trapped.

Mold problems accelerate in drafty homes more frequently in the colder months,when warm air escapes from the living area and condenses.

Artificially humidified homes can create conditions favorable to mold.

Moving air may prevent mold from growing.

Moving air has a desiccating effect like low humidity.

Growth of mold may occur between 32 and 95 °F (0 and 35 °C), but grow best in warm temperatures, 77 to 86 °F (25 to 30 °C).

Removing one of the three requirements for mold reduces (or eliminates) new mold growth:

Mold generally does not grow in cold environments.

HVAC systems produce all three requirements for mold growth, creating a difference in temperature, and encourages condensation.

HVAC dusty air movement may provide ample food for mold.

When air-conditioning system is not always running, warm conditions add the final component for mold growth.

Visible mold presence determines the level of repair that is necessary.

Vigorous inspection of the physical environment and areas of moisture are required to assess the mold level.

Air sampling to assess mold levels is the most common ambling.

Indoor and outdoor air may sampled, and their mold-spore levels compared.

Air sampling frequently identifies hidden mold.

Surface sampling measures the number of mold spores deposited on indoor surfaces, collected on tape or in dust.

Multiple types of sampling are recommended.

Mold will begin to grow on moist, porous surfaces within 24 to 48 hours

The effective way to clean mold is to use detergent solutions which physically remove mold.

Many commercially available detergents marketed for mold cleanup include an antifungal agent.

Mold growth may require removal of affected building materials and eradicate the source of excess moisture.

In extreme cases it may be more cost-effective to condemn the building than to reduce mold to safe levels.

The goals are to remove or clean contaminated materials, preventing fungi from entering an occupied area while protecting workers

Killing mold with a biocide is insufficient.

Chemicals and proteins causing reactions in humans remain in dead mold.

HVAC cleaning must be done.

Protective clothing , Including a half- or full-face respirator mask to prevent mold spores from reaching the mucous membranes of the eyes.

Disposable hazmat coveralls to keep out particles down to one micrometer, and protective suits keep mold spores from entering skin cuts.

Gloves made of rubber, nitrile, polyurethane, or neoprene.

The level of mold contamination dictates the protection level for remediation workers.

Contamination levels have been enumerated as I, II, III, and IV.

Level I: Small, isolated areas (10 square feet (0.93 m2) or less).

Level II: Mid-sized, isolated areas (10–30 square feet (0.93–2.79 m2)

Level III: Large, isolated areas (30–100 square feet (2.8–9.3 m2)

Level IV: Extensive contamination (more than 100 square feet (9.3 m2)

Residential mold may be prevented and controlled by:

Cleaning and repairing roof gutters, to prevent moisture seepage into the home

Keeping air-conditioning drip pans clean and drainage lines clear

Monitoring indoor humidity

Drying areas of moisture or condensation and removing their sources

Treating exposed structural wood or wood framing with an EPA-approved fungicidal encapsulation coating after pre-cleaning

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