Addictive street drug which gives the user a ‘rush’ with enhanced feelings of well-being, increased energy levels, heightened libido and appetite suppression.

There has been a rise in methamphetamine use disorder in the US, particularly in the Midwest where it is the leading cause of overdose deaths.

Associated with state of euphoria, agitation, anxiety, violence, mood irregularities, psychosis and depression.

Abuse of a variety of forms has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S.

Less expensive than cocaine, but stimulant effect is longer lasting.

When mood and energy effects wear off, users become restless, anxious, irritable, fatigue and dysphoric, temporary relief with improved symptoms by further use of methamphetamines and reinforcement of addiction.

Production yields toxic waste of acids, lye, phosphorus and fine particulate matter which contaminate the environment.

Production requires inflammable ingredients leading to fires and explosions.

Patients with methamphetamine related burns have a higher mortality rate than matched-aged controls not exposed to amphetamines.

Methamphetamine is associated with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in an increased risk for Parkinson’s disease.

Phosphine is a by-product of methamphetamine cooking and can cause multiple organ system damage by inhibiting cytochrome C oxidase, with the generation of free radicals.

Phosphine exposure can cause ocular, and respiratory damage with shortness of breath, nausea, headache and abdominal pain.

Phosphine exposure can lead to severe lung and cardiac damage with respiratory and cardiovascular failure.

Bupropion and naltrexone show positive evidence of advocacy in clinical trials for methamphetamine use disorder.
Bupropion is a stimulant like antidepressant that acts through norepinephrine and dopamine systems and may ameliorate the dysphoria associated with methamphetamine withdrawal that drives continued use.
Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist effective for the treatment of opioid use disorder and the showing  moderate effect in preventing relapse of alcohol abuse, perhaps by attenuating the reinforcing effects of substances or cu-induced cravings.
Among adults with methamphetamine use disorder the response over a period of 12 weeks among participants who received naltrexone plus bupropion was low but higher than among participants who receive placebo.

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