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Melphalan

 

Melphalan, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and AL amyloidosis.

 

 

It chemically alters the DNA nucleotide guanine through alkylation, and causes linkages between strands of DNA. 

 

 

It  inhibits DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis necessary for cells to survive. 

 

 

M  cause cytotoxicity in both dividing and non-dividing tumor cells.

 

 

Trade name Alkeran.

 

 

It is taken by mouth) or by injection into a vein.

 

 

Bioavailability 25–89% By mouth.

 

 

Metabolism- Hydrolysis to inactive metabolites.

 

 

Elimination half-life 1.5 ± 0.8 hours

 

 

Excretion Kidney, IV: 5.8–21.3%.

 

 

Side effects include: nausea and bone marrow suppression, anaphylaxis and the development of other cancers.

 

 

Use during pregnancy may be harmful. 

 

 

Melphalan belongs to the class of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents.

 

 

M is used as a high-dose conditioning treatment prior to hematopoietic progenitor stemcell transplantation in multiple myeloma (MM) patients

 

the palliative treatment of MM patients for whom oral therapy is not appropriate.

 

 

Also used to treat ocular retinoblastoma, via transarterial catheter based pulsed infusion into the ophthalmic artery.

 

 

Other side effects: 

 

Pulmonary fibrosis, usually only with prolonged use, has been reported.

 

Hair loss

 

 

Interstitial pneumonitis

 

 

Rash

 

 

Itching

 

 

Irreversible bone marrow failure

 

 

Cardiac arrest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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