Medical costs

It is estimated that 10 to 20% of healthcare medical services do not improve patient’s health, and cost $75-$101, billion per year.

In the United States $170 billion is spent on direct medical care related to smoking and $160 billion is lost in productivity each year.

Coronary artery disease affects roughly 18.2 million adults and costs the healthcare system more than $21 billion annually.

The estimated spending by Medicare on oral  direct acting oral anticoagulants was estimated at $7 billion in 2019.

Oral targeted agents for cancer can cost more than $170,000 per patient per year.

WHO ranks the US healthcare system 37th among countries worldwide.

Healthcare costs in the United States are 25% greater than the second most expensive country and 14 fold greater than Cuba’s. 

The United States pays prices for brand name drugs that are estimated to be 256% higher than other wealthy nations.

Annual direct costs associated with IBS estimated at more than $1 billion in the US.


In 2015 healthcare expenditures for abdominal pain were estimated to be $10.2 billion.


It is estimated that the total yearly cost for computerized ECGs in the US is over $2 billion.

From 2017-2019, drug and device companies paid healthcare professionals nearly $2 billion in compensation for services other than consulting, including services serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program.


On July 1, 2020 Novartis agreed to pay $678 million settlement to resolve the civil fraud charge including the payment of more than $100 million to physicians in 80,000 speaker programs violating the FTC false claims act and anti-kickback statute by providing doctors with cash payments, recreational outings, lavish meals, and expensive of alcohol to reduce them to prescribe Novartis cardiovascular and diabetes drugs reimbursed by federal healthcare programs.


In 2019 the US spent $3.8 trillion on healthcare including an estimated $370 billion on retail prescription drugs.

In 2019 spending on prescription drugs represented approximately 27% of total spending among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in part D.

Chronic pain cost about $630 billion annually, coronary heart disease $309 billion, cancer 243 billion, direct diabetes cost $306.6 billion, opioid use disorder $80 billion(2019).

The global health expenditure on diabetes management was nearly 760 billion USD in 2019, which will continue to increase with the escalating diabetes prevalence. 

The average individual in the US spends more than $1000 per capita annually on out-of-pocket healthcare costs.


Dementia is avglobal epidemic, with 50 million people affected and estimated economic cost of approximately $1 trillion per year globally.


The total economic cost to society of addiction  is greater than that of all types of diabetes and all cancers combined.

The annual cost of pharmaceuticals in the United States is approaching $550 billion.

The annual cost of global healthcare is around $9 trillion.

Estimated that 15% of all hospital costs in advanced economy countries can be attributed to patient harms from adverse events.

Annual cost of stroke care exceeds $70 billion.

Estimated cost of myopia is roughly $6.6 billion make myopia a substantial financial burden to individuals and society.

Healthcare expenditures related to falls in the US exceeds $50 billion annually, accounting for 4.4% of Medicare hospital expenditures,  5.7% of physician and other health professional expenditures and 11.8% of spending for home health services, long-term healthcare, facilities, and durable medical equipment.

Medicare and Medicaid represent approximately 40% of US healthcare expenditures.

In 2020 Medicare accounted for more than $800 billion in healthcare spending, and Medicaid accounted for more than $600 billion in healthcare spending.

Estimated annual cost of fibroid management in the US is estimated $34 billion. 

The largest category of wasteful medical spending in the US, about 30%, is administrative costs.

Administrative expenses account for approximately 15-25% of total national healthcare expenditures.

Administrative expenses comprise less than 1/8 of total healthcare spending in other countries.

A 2019 study suggested that about 25% or 760 billion-$935 billion, of the 3.6 trillion in the US spends on healthcare annually is potentially wasteful: equating to each person spending and unnecessary $2500 per year on healthcare (Shrank WH).

The clinical value of cancer treatments does not seem to be a primary determinant of oncology drug treatment costs.

Management of diabetes accounts for 10% of the global healthcare expenditure, about $760 billion.


Antineoplastic drug costs represent more than 50% of the total cost of cancer care.

The total cost of the Covid-19 pandemic is estimated more than $16 trillion, or approximately 90% of the annual gross domestic product of the US. 

The Covid-19 pandemic is the greatest threat to prosperity and well-being in the US since the great depression.

The annual healthcare cost with fractures related to postmenopausal  osteoporosis is currently $57 billion in the US.

Fibromyalgia leads to an estimated $10 billion in total related health care cost annually.

Fibroids are the leading cause of hysterectomy and in the US accounts for about $34 billion annualy in direct and indirect costs.

The total economic cost to society of addiction  is greater than that of all types of diabetes and all cancers combined.

Hypertension accounts for an estimated $131 billion in associated national medical costs.

Chronic pain contributes to a financial burden of $635 billion each year from costs of medical care, loss of productivity, and disability programs.

The median profit margin for large pharmaceutical companies is nearly double that of non-pharmaceutical companies: the median net income is 13.8% for pharmaceutical companies compared with 7.7% pharmaceutical companies.

The estimated costs for low back pain is just behind ischemic heart disease.

Health care costs per capita are projected to increase by 20% because of aging in the United States from 2000 to 2030 with an annual increase of 0.6%.


The US spends the most on health care per person globally, yet patients have fewer doctor visits and fewer days in hospitals than people in other countries do.

GLP-1antagonidts list prices range from $12-$16,000 per year and even with maximum negotiated discounts, costs  will likely exceed $6500 per year.

Fraud-in 2016 there is more than $6 billion in extra payments improperly made to Medicare Advantage plans because of inflated estimates of enrollees sicknesses.

In 2018 US healthcare costs spending total $3.6 trillion, amounting to 17.7% of the gross domestic product and $11,200 per capita, almost twice as much as many other high income countries.

In the US 5% of the population accounts for 50% of the annual healthcare spending and 1% accounts for almost a quarter of annual spending

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US costing the economy $555 billion annually.

Smoking causes an estimated societal cost of more than $300 billion annually, including an estimated 170 billion in healthcare spending.

Generic cholesterol drugs save Medicare billions of dollars annually.

The US accounts for 41.7% of global health spending, yet accounts for only 4.4% of the global population.

Pharmaceutical companies spend almost twice as much on marketing and administrative costs as on research and development.

Prices of the 20 most commonly prescribed brand-name drugs for seniors have increased nearly 4 times more than the general inflation over the past five years.

12 of the 20 drugs saw their prices increased by more than 50% over a five-year period and six had increases of more than 100%.

Medications make up 14% of total US healthcare spending, and is increasing substantially.

In 2018 pharmaceutical expenditures in the US were $1443 per capita.

Medications make up 14% of total US healthcare spending, and is increasing substantially.

There is a strong inverse relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and health care costs.

Septicemia is the most expensive condition treated in US hospitals, counting for $24 billion in healthcare cost annually.

Annual per capita healthcare expenditures are 2.3 times higher for people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes.

Annual cost for a management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) exceed $12 billion.

Diet related diseases are estimated to cost of $1.1 trillion in the US each year.

Annual cost for skin cancer care is estimated at $8.1 billion.

Of the six categories evaluated for US healthcare system waste the amount of money range from failure of care delivery 102.4 billion to 165,7 billion, failure of care coordination 27.2 billion-78,2 billion, overtreatment or low value care 75.7 billion-101.2 billion, pricing failures 230.7 -240.5 billion, fraud and abuse 58.5 billion 283.9 billion and administrative complexity 265.6 billion.

The total amount of waste in the US healthcare system ranges from $760 billion-$935 billion, counting for approximately 25% of total US healthcare spending.

Recent national comparisons show that healthcare utilization per capita is not appreciably higher than other high income countries, but that there is a disproportionately high price per service accounting for the majority of cost differences.

Hospitals are increasingly using employed physicians with much higher charges for the same services.

List prices for specialty drugs averaged $4450 per prescription in 2017.

Medicare spending on part D catastrophic coverage phase, in which it pays 80% of expenditures nearly quadrupled between 2010 and 2018.

Charges per day for a hospital admission: Spain $424, South Africa $631, Australia $765, New Zealand $2142,Switzerland 47 $81 and the United States $5220.

About 32% of US healthcare spending is on hospital care.

The direct cause of treating diabetic foot ulcers in the US is estimated to be 9 to $13 billion annually.

Direct and indirect cost of cardiovascular disease and stroke total nearly $330 billion per year.

The estimated cost for acute respiratory failure is 50 billion dollars annually in the US.

Chronic fatigue syndrome-Generates direct and indirect expenses of approximately 17-$24 billion annually.

In 2016 the top 5% of US health spenders accounted for the top half of the total spending, or about $50,000 per person, while the bottom half of the population accounted for only 3% of total healthcare spending for $276 per person.

Heart failure estimated annual cost of $31 billion in the US.

Premature deaths from cancer cost the U.S. economy more than $94 billion in annual lost earnings.

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries direct and indirect costs greater than $7 billion annually.

The economic impact of illness related to excess bodyweight is estimated at $2 trillion globally in 2014 (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration).

Cost of assessing dizziness in emergency rooms exceeds $4 billion per year.

Atrial fibrillation accounts for an estimated $26 billion in health care annual expenditures.

Health care accounts for close to $2.9 trillion dollars per year in spending, or 17.8% of the GDP.

Health care expenditures in 2016 was approximately $3.4 trillion, approximately 17.8% of the gross domestic product..

Health care consumption approaching 20% of GDP.

Healthcare expenditures consume approximately 30% of many state budgets.

The cost of healthcare in the US is estimated at $10,000 per person per year and is at least 50% more than the cost than any other country.

Healthcare expenditures in the US was $9990 per person in 2015, the world’s highest.

Annual US total healthcare spending of $3.3 trillion dwarfs spending on other critical services such as national defense at about $800 billion and education $1.1 trillion.

When combining salary plus bonuses, neurosurgeons earn $615,888 on average annually (2018).

It is estimated that the percentage of healthcare spending that is wasted on unnecessary services, excessive administration costs, fraud and other problems could be as high as 47% and totaling over $1 trillion per year.

The US health insurance sector costs about $570 billion or 2 .7% of US gross domestic product.

In the United States 11% of adults go without care because of cost.

Overuse of laboratory tests accounts for $7 billion spent by laboratory testing in 2015 by Medicare alone, and 16-40% of these test may be clinically unnecessary.

Estimated that in the US, nearly $117 billion in annual health care costs and 10% of all premature deaths are associated with failure to meet recommended aerobic physical activity.

Prescription drug costs continue to increase at a significantly higher rate than the rate of inflation.

In 2012, 36.5 million people were hospitalized in the US, with an averaged cost of $10,400 per stay; costs increase by approximately1.9% annually.

The socioeconomic effect of venous thromboembolism is estimated with an annual cost ranging from 13.5 billion to 27.2 billion in the US.

Cancer care costs nearly $173 billion/yr.

Cancer’s direct medical costs exceed $80 billion and indirect costs of premature mobility and mortality exceed $130 billion.

Prices of cancer drugs have risen more than 100 fold since 1965, and the trend is unabated.


Heart failure care costs over $30 billion/year.

80% of her heart failure costs are due to hospitalizations and readmissions.

Biologic agents accounted for $200-210 billion of global spending in 2016.

Insured and uninsured adults use the ED at very similar rates and in very similar circumstances

The uninsured use the ED substantially less than the Medicaid population.

It is estimated that the fear of lawsuits increases US healthcare expenditure by about 5%, equivalent to about $170 billion.

Estimated federal and state Medicaid expenditures total $595 billion in 2017.

Medicaid paid an estimated $36.7 billion in improper payments into 2017, including those made for people not eligible for Medicaid or for services not actually provided and accounted for 26.1% of the fiscal year 2017’s government wide improper payments.

The uninsured do not use the ED more than the insured, they do use other types of care much less than the insured.

Total spending by the states on Medicaid benefits for more than 74 million individuals was an estimated $574 billion in 2017.

The annual cost of training a medical student is estimated at $112,000, and the annual cost of training a resident is estimated at $158,000: Thus the cost for a four years of medical school and three-year residency is nearly an estimated $1 million.

Hospital based care accounts for the largest share of total US health care costs, 32.4% in 2014.

The cost of healthcare delivery is higher in teaching hospitals compared with non teaching hospitals.

The direct and indirect socioeconomic costs of headache is estimated at 14 billion dollars per year.

Arthritic pain has annual direct healthcare expenses of an estimated $81 billion, with indirect costs of $189 billion annually.

Low back pain estimated to cost $30 billion in direct healthcare costs and 100-$200 billion in decreased wages and disability in the US annually.

Chronic pain annual cost estimated between 560 and $635 billion in the US alone.

US healthcare spending in 2013 was $9255 per person, 42% higher than the next highest per capita country spending.

Multiple sclerosis-Annual health care cost more than $10 billion in the US.

Cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately 10% of all global health care spending.

Commercial insurance payers spend almost twice as much on chemotherapy compared with therapy administered in physician offices (JAMA).

Total annual cost related to Heart and Vascular diseases in the US is 315 billion dollars, and of this 193 billion is due to direct medical costs.

Per patient cost of organ transplant ranges from $300,000 for pancreas and kidney transplants to $1.5 million for intestinal transplant.

Medical bankruptcy is the primary cause of bankruptcy in the United States.

Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera) most expensive medicine in world-1million/yr.

Medicare accounts for @ 21% of health care spending or $554 billion.

About 28% of Medicare spending ($170 billion) is spent on healthcare during last 6 months of life.

Functional dyspepsia 2009 $18 billion.

US critical care services consumes > 13% of hospital costs and 4.4% of national healthcare


Critical care resource accounts for almost 1% of US gross domestic product.

C. difficile extends hospital stays an average of almost 10 days and is estimated to cost the health care system $6.3 billion annually.

CHF care costs approximately $32 billion annually.

Medication non adherence increases healthcare costs of approx $100 billion annualy.

Type 2 diabetes health care costs annually exceed half a trillion dollars worldwide.

The global health expenditure on diabetes management was nearly 760 billion USD in 2019, which will continue to increase with the escalating diabetes prevalence. 

One infusion of tisagenlecleucel costs $475,000 and one infusion of axicabtagene cilileucil costs $373,000.

Almost 14% of healthcare expenditures in US come from diabetes and more than 50% is due to complications of the disease.

Otitis media affects approx 80% of children and costs approx $4 billion in annual health care costs.

Biologics accounted for $8 billion in Medicare Part B spending.

Medicare/beneficiaries spent $20.9 billion on part B drugs in 2013 and rising rapidly

Cancer care accounts for 11% of total healthcare expenditures, yet less than 1% of US population has an oncology related diagnosis.

Estimated cost of cancer care $173 billion a year.

More than $122 billion spent annually on pharmaceuticals in the U.S.

In 2010 cost of colorectal cancer care was $14 billion in US.

Medicare spending $9 billion on hepatitis C drugs.

Cost of care of fetal alcohol syndrome $3.8 billion annually.

Medicaid paid $8 billion for medical care related to severe obesity in 2013.

Obesity is associated with at least $174 billion in annual excess healthcare spending, with the highest excess expenditures occurring once people have reached their 60s; approximately $1500-$3000 per person annually.

More than $60 billion spent annually on weight loss programs and products.

Cost for treating severe obesity-11% paid by Medicaid, 30% paid by Medicare, 27% by private health plans and 30% paid by out-of-pocket costs.


Obesity costs the US health care system $147 billion a year.

2010 global cost of non communicable disease was $6.3 trillion.

Annual cost of treating acute rhinosinusitis 2$billion.

The global cost of COPD $2.1 trillion in 2010.

Home oxygen therapy comes in second place, after hospitalizations,  as the most expensive healthcare expenditure associated with COPD.

The most costly 1% of patients account for 1/5 of the national health expenditures.-Accruing average annual expenses of newly $90,000 per person.

Physical inactivity accounts for about 2.4% of US healthcare expenditures or approximately $24 billion a year.

Ten billion dollars per year in annual medical expenditures for diabetic nephropathy.

Estimated cost of $635 billion a year for medical treatment and lost productivity from chronic pain.

Community acquired pneumonia generates $10.6 billion in health care cost annually.

Estimated $30 billion is wasted annually on unnecessary imaging tests in the US.

Estimated $192 billion spent annually on delivery of low value service medical care-Degree of benefits does not justify the harms and costs.

Direct costs of atrial fibrillation $6 billion annually.

Estimated $151 billion spent on direct and indirect costs for bipolar disorder in the US in 2009.

Ipilimubab for melanoma costs about $145 per mg, or about $120,000 per dose.

Annual cost for treating conjunctivitis alone is $300 million.

Age related macular degeneration costs the United States more than $51 billion a year in medical expenses and lost worker productivity.

Problem drinking cost the US $249 billion in 2010, or $2.05 per drink.

Annual cost for asthma in adults total more than $67 billion and is substantially higher in  patients with uncontrolled disease.

CHF healthcare costs estimated $31 billion 2012.

Total national cost of pain ranges from 560-$635 billion annually in direct treatment costs and lost productivity.

Annual burden for traumatic brain injury in the US is $60 billion (Maas AI et al).

Direct and indirect costs 76 $ billion/yr for traumatic brain injury.

For collegiate athletics, the estimated cost of sport injuries ranges from $446 million to $1.5 billion per year.

For high school athletics, the yearly estimated cost of sport injuries ranges from $5.4 billion to $19.2 billion.

Medical costs in the United States for sports injury related emergency department visits exceeded $935 million every year.

Estimated cost of unnecessary medical tests and interventions $210 billlion dollars per year.

Estimated direct and indirect costs of bipolar care in 2009 was $151 billion.

1 month of oral cancer drugs are approx 6 times more expensive than cancer drugs introduced in 2000.

Brand-name drug prices are on average approximately 2 to 4 times higher in the US than another comparable industrialized countries.

Cost of new oral cancer drugs averaged $11,325 per month now , whereas drugs launched in 2000 cost an average of $1869.

Oral cancer agents accounts for roughly $2 billion in health expenses annually in the US.

Sepsis accounted for more than $20 billion or 5.2% of total US hospital costs in 2011.

Oversized vials of cancer drugs may lead to $3 billion of overspending a year by drug wastage(Bach PB).

Physicians who receive payments from device manufacturers of implantable cardio defibrillators or resynchronization therapy defibrillators were more likely to use devices from a manufacture that provided the highest total payment to the physician.

There is little or no benefit of certificate of need regulations for hospitals.for improving patient outcomes through higher hospital procedure volume but controlling hospital utilization.

In a study of a five-year database from 2016 to 2020 the monthly cost for treatment with monotherapy nivolumab was $17,200 a month, and for Pembrolizumab $22,300 per month (Abraham I)!


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