An infection of the mastoid bone of the skull.

Otitis media affects approximately 80% of children and contributing to approximately $4 billion in annual health care costs in the United States.

Increased antibiotic use has greatly decreased the incidence of complications from otitis media.

While preantibiotic complication rates were as high as 20% to 50% with a high associated mortality rate, complications are now seen in only 0.004% to 3% of cases.

Mastoiditis is the most common complication of otitis media and it occurs almost exclusively as a result of this infection.

Symptoms commonly include: fever, otalgia, otorrhea, and postauricular pain.

Otalgia or otorrhea are commonly present for greater than 2 weeks.

Diagnosis of mastoiditis is primarily clinical.

CT scans are considered for further evaluation of the temporal bone.

Treatment usually involves mastoidectomy and antibiotic coverage for organisms that commonly cause otitis media,

Carries a mortality rate of 1.3% to 5%, and a risk of hearing loss of up to 26%.

Mastoid contains open, air-containing spaces.

Rare in developed countries.

It is located just behind the outside ear.

Usually caused by untreated acute otitis media with spread from the ear to the mastoid bone of the skull.

Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media has decreased the incidence of acute mastoiditis.

Chronic mastoiditis is most commonly associated with chronic suppurative otitis media or with cholesteatoma formations.

Cholesteatomas are benign tumors of squamous epithelium that can grow and alter normal structure and function of surrounding soft tissue and bone.

Used to be a leading cause of child mortality

The mastoid bone fills with infected materials and may deteriorate.

Usually affects children.

Associated with fever, ear pain, ear drainage, headache, hearing loss, and dizziness.

Surgery to remove part of the bone and drain the mastoid may be needed if antibiotic therapy is not successful.

Myringotomy may be needed to treat the middle ear infection.

Complications include epidural abscess, facial paralysis, meningitis, hering loss, and sepsis.

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