MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase)

MAPK signaling pathway has a role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and survival of cancer cells.

MAPK pathway mediate cellular responses to growth signals.

This pathway sends information from the cell surface to modulate gene expression for several cellular functions, including growth.

MAPK pathway Is the most commonly mutated oncogenic pathway in human cancers and is associated with more than a third of solid tumors in about half the cases of multiple myeloma.

Genetic mutations in KRAS, BRAF or NRAS lead to activation of the MAPK pathway.

Abberant signaling through the MAPK pathway drives tumor cell  proliferation, differentiation, survival and migration.

RAF kinases are central mediators in the MAPK pathway and exert their effect through the MEK phosphorylation and activation following dimerization of RAF molecules.

Activation of KRAS, BRAF or NRAS mutations correlate with sensitivity to MEK.

RAF is integral to grill to multiple celllar processes , including transcriptional regulation, cellular differentiation, and cell proliferation.

An intracellular kinase that is expressed in multiple cells, including endothelial cells, myocytes, and macrophages, and participates in numerous adaptive and maladaptive biological processes, including inflammation, cellular migration, growth and death.

Activated in the cardiovascular system by activation is p38 MAPK can lead to amplification of the inflammatory cascade by increasing production of multiple cytokines including TNF, interleukin 1 and 6, metalloproteinases, and cyclooxygenase 2.

Activated in the cardiovascular system by a variety of stressors, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, ischemia, and volume overload.

MAPK mediated inflammatory amplification implicated in atherogenesis, plaque destabilization, and detrimental processes infarction, and wound healing.

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