A condition that results in the loss of eyelashes, sometimes eyebrow.

Originally was a disease of only losing eyelashes but it currently is the loss of both eyelashes and eyebrows.

Eyebrows and eyelashes are important in the prevention of bacteria and other foreign objects from entering the eye.

A majority of patients with madarosis have leprosy.

Approximately 75% of patients with varying types of leprosy have madarosis.

Not a critical condition.

The main symptom and signs are: the loss of hair from the eyelids, eyebrows, or eyelashes.

Many symptoms are from other diseases involved and include:s wollen, itchy, red, burning eyelids.

Causes include: blepharitis, multiple types of dermatological conditions including atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, psoriasis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acne rosacea, and cutaneous sarcoidosis.

Severe malnutrition can cause chronic hair loss.

Hypoproteinemia can causes hair loss by early onset of telogen.

Zinc deficiencies can lead to the loss of eyebrow/eyelash hair.

Infections that can cause the loss of eyelashes/eyebrows and include: leprosy, syphilis, viral infections like herpes or HIV, fungal infections, are also possible causes of madarosis.

Most trauma injuries cause madarosis from the psychological standpoint, known as trichotillomania.

Autoimmune disorders such as alopecia areata, discoid lupus erythematosus, and chronic cutaneous lupus erythmatosus.

Other diseases associated include: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hypopituitarism, and amyloidosis.

There are two major types of classifications of madarosis. non-scarring and scarring.

Non-scarring type the hair has the ability to regrowth after treatment of the primary disorder.

Scarring type is when the hair loss is permanent and can only regrow after cosmetic treatments.

There are two major pathways.

In the non-scarring pathway, the hair follicles remain intact which could potentially be reversed with the proper diagnosis and treatments.

In the scaring pathway, the follicles are permanently lost due to tissue damage, autrophy, or inflammation.

Dermatologic conditions can result in madarosis dependent on the location.

Atopic dermatitis affects the lower eyelid.

Madarosis is commonly seen from both atopic and seborrhoeic dermatitis due to continuous scratching/touching.

Psoriasis on the eyelids, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acne rosacea ,and cutaneous sarcoidosis can be causes.

Deficiencies in biotin and iron may result in a loss of hair.

Unilateral madarosis may occur in tuberculoid leprosy from granulomatous infiltration of hair follicles ultimately destroying them.

Syphilis can cause a moth-eaten appearance of the eyebrow hair loss.

Viral infections like herpes or HIV can cause scarring of the eyelid, causing loss of hair.

Various fungal infections like paracoccidioidomycosis can cause lesions and changes in the hair locations of the eyelid.

Trichotillomania is a psychological disorder where the hair is pulled out or breakage occurs.

Amiodarone has been reported to cause loss of eyelashes and eyebrows.

Cocaine abuse has shown hair loss as hot vapors traveling up causing burning of the hair of the eyebrows or eyelashes.

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause hair loss due to the eradication of the hair cells, especially when used to treat ocular tumors.

Treatments for madarosis are dependent upon the pre-existing condition.

In severe cases restoration surgery for the eyebrows may be necessary.

Follicular transplantation is now the surgical procedure of choice.

Minoxidil topical treatment of eyebrow hair loss for alopecia areata.

Other topical treatments, latanprost or bimatroprost, that are mainly used to treat glaucoma that can also be used to lengthen, thicken, and change the pigments of the lashes.

Cosmetic treatments include applying artificial eyelashes, tattooing eyebrows/eyelashes, penciling in the eyebrows or using mascara to make the existing eyelashes look longer.

Patients with malignant lesions on the eyelid have a higher chance of having madarosis than a patient with a benign lesion.

Leprosy cases, may present with madarosis.

Commonly due to the chemotherapy drugs.

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