Abnormal metabolism of fat.

Lipodystrophy refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders, characterized by selective lack of subcutaneous  adipose tissue, accompanied by insulin resistance.

Lipodistrophy can be classified as generalized or partial and as genetic or acquired.

In cases of lipodystrophy areas of lipohypertrophy trophy may be also be present.

insulin resistance develops in patients with lipodystrophy as a result of elevated circulating free fatty acids and accumulation of ectopic fat.

Low fat stores may lead to low circulating levels of adepokine leptin, which further contribute to the insulin resistance.

More recently defined as abnormal deposition or wasting of adipose tissue or combinations of these alterations as a consequence of some protease inhibitors utilized in patients with HIV/AIDS.

Insulin is an anabolic hormone and impaired insulin signaling in patients with insulin resistance, may lead to catabolism of catabolism of both muscle and fat.

Patients with lipodystrophy have reduced body fat with preservation of muscle mass.

Syndrome associated with a 2-5 fold increase in the risk of hypertension, reduction of bone density, 2% risk of osteonecrosis of the hip, hypercholesterolemia in 10-27% of HIV treated patients, hypertriglyceridemia in 23-40% of HIV treated patients, lowered HDL levels in 19-27% of treated patients, diabetes in 7% of HIV infected patients with lipoatrophy.

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