Categories
Uncategorized

Life expectancy

2453
 
Longevity is similar to life expectancy.

 

The term longevity is sometimes meant to refer only to especially long-lived members of a population, whereas life expectancy is always defined statistically as the average number of years remaining at a given age. 

 

Factors in life expectancy include: gender, genetics, access to health care, hygiene, diet and nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, and crime rates. 

The population of the US is experienced shorter life expectancy and higher disease rates than populations in other high income countries.
The gap in life expectancy between the US and peer countries has increased from 1.9 years in 2010 to 4.7 years in 2020.

Humans living 25,000 to 40,000 years ago survived on average to their mid 20s (Trinkaus E).

Life expectancy at birth for the average global citizen is 70 years and rising.

Life expectancy:

 

Developed countries: 77–90 years 

 

Developing countries: 32–80 years 

 

Life expectancy in the US stalled in 2010 and is declined since 2014 after decades of increased life expectancy.

 

Recent increases in the rates of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, may eventually slow or reverse the increased life expectancy trend.

 

There has been an increase in mortality in 35-64-year-old males and females in the US.

Most of the past increases in life expectancy occurred because of improved survival rates for young people. 

Life expectancy has risen linearly for men and women, albeit more slowly for men. 

Life expectancy for women has increased more dramatically owing to the considerable advances in medicine related to childbirth.

 

The change in life expectancy has been related to increasing rates of midlife cardiovascular mortality among adults each 35-64 years. 

 

The prevalence of underlying cardiometabolic risk factors as increased including obesity and diabetes and control of hypertension has declined.

The gaps in life expectancy between the one percent richest and the one percent poorest individuals were 14.6  years for men and 10.1  years for women from 2000 to 2014 in the US.

Similar income to mortality gradients have been observed in several high income nations: differences in access to healthcare, behavior risk factors, social stress, and neighborhood characteristics.

The population of the US is experienced short of life expectancy and higher disease rates than populations and other high income countries. The gap in life expectancy between the US and 16 pier countries has been increasing to 4.7 years in 2020.

The state of Alabama and Mississippi have the same life expectancy as Latvia: At 75 years.

Fv

Population longevities are increasing as life expectancies around the world grow:

The leading causes of death among Black Americans and White Americans are diseases of the heart, whereas those among Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans are malignant neoplasms.

 

Healthspan, parental lifespan, and longevity are highly genetically correlated.

 

Twin studies have estimated that approximately 20-30% the variation in human lifespan can be related to genetics, with the rest due to individual behaviors and environmental factors which can be modified.

 

Identified 10 genomic loci which appear to intrinsically influence healthspan, lifespan, and longevity: most being associated with cardiovascular disease.

Over 200 gene variants have been associated with longevity.

 

Lymphoblastoid cell lines established from blood samples of centenarians have significantly higher activity of the DNA repair protein Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) than cell lines from younger individuals.

The lymphocytic cells of centenarians have the capability of priming the mechanism of repair after sublethal oxidative DNA damage.

 PARP gene expression suggest that elevated PARP gene expression contributes to the longevity of centenarians, consistent with the DNA damage theory of aging.

 

 

Poor diet is one of the leading contributing factors to death worldwide and in the US.

 

 

Healthy diets are characterized by over consumption of ultra processed foods and sugary drinks, obesity, type two diabetes, and heart disease.

 

 

A healthy diet helps children grow and develop properly and reduces their risk of chronic diseases, including obesity. 

 

 

Adults who eat a healthy diet live longer and have a lower risk of obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. 

 

 

Healthy eating can help people with chronic diseases manage these conditions and prevent complications.

 

 

Breastfeeding is the ideal source of nutrition for infants, only 1 in 4 is exclusively breastfed through 6 months of age as recommended. 

 

 

Fewer than 1 in 10 adults and adolescents eat enough fruits and vegetables, and 9 in 10 Americans aged 2 years or older consume more than the recommended amount of 

 

 

6 in 10 young people aged 2 to 19 years and 5 in 10 adults consume a sugary drink on a given day.

 

 

Processed foods and sugary drinks add unneeded sodium, saturated fats, and sugar to many diets, increasing the risk of chronic diseases.

 

 

Eating a healthy diet, along with getting enough physical activity and sleep, can helps children grow up healthy and prevents obesity.

 

 

19% of young people aged 2 to 19 years and 40% of adults have obesity.

 

 

Obesity costs the US health care system $147 billion a year.

 

 

Consuming too much sodium increases blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke. 

 

 

Current guidelines recommend getting less than 2,300 mg a day, but Americans consume more than 3,400 mg a day on average.

 

 

Over 70% of the sodium that Americans eat comes from packaged, processed, store-bought, and restaurant foods. 

 

 

Eating foods low in saturated fats and high in fiber and increasing access to low-sodium foods, along with regular physical activity, can help prevent high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure.

 

 

More than 1 in 3—have prediabetes, and more than 8 in 10 it is unknown to them.

 

 

Overweight and obesity are associated with at least 13 types of cancer, including endometrial, breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and colorectal cancer, accounting for up to 40% of all cancers diagnosed.

 

 

Low levels of iron during pregnancy and early childhood is associated with mental and behavioral delays in children. 

 

 

Iodine levels must be adequate during pregnancy to help a growing baby have the best brain development possible.

 

 

In the United States: 3 in  4 infants are not exclusively breastfed for 6 months.

 

 

Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for most infants. 

 

 

Breastfeeding can reduce the risk of some short-term health conditions for infants and long-term health conditions for infants and mothers. 

 

 

Reducing sodium intake to 2,300 mg a day could save 280,000 to 500,000 lives and nearly $100 billion in health care costs over the next 10 years.

 

 

Lifestyle changes can cut risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 58%, and 71% for those over 60.

 

About 2.8 million people die every year in the US.

Life expectancy at birth for the US population 78.6 years, with an average life expectancy 76.1 years and 81.1 years in men and women, respectively.

Women normally outlive men: smaller bodies with less stress on the heart, a stronger immune system, and less tendency to engage in physically dangerous activities.

Life expectancy was thought to continue to rise due to advances in treatments for heart disease and cancer, and declining smoking rates, especially among those with better access to education and insurance.

In preindustrial times, deaths at young and middle age were more common than they are today, due to environmental factors such as disease, accidents, and malnutrition, especially since the former were not generally treatable with pre-20th-century medicine. 

 

Deaths from childbirth were common for women, and many children did not live past infancy in preindustrial era.

Twin studies have estimated that approximately 20-30% the variation in human lifespan can be related to genetics, with the rest due to individual behaviors and environmental factors which can be modified.

Longevity is based on two major factors, genetics and lifestyle choices.

Diseases such as CHF, end stage renal disease, advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, advanced dementia, and severe functional limitations in activities of daily living all predict a shorter life expectancy compared with age match controls.

Life expectancy at birth in the US decreased 0.3 years from 2014-2017, the largest decline since 1993.

Childhood immunizations are largely responsible for the increase in life expectancy in the 20th century. 

The increase in mortality has been attributed to deaths due to alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and suicide.

Life expectancy has decreased due to deaths from obesity, hypertension, and renal failure, all related to poor nutrition and lack of exercise.

Even modest amounts of leisure time physical exercise can extend life expectancy by as much as 4.5 years.

Obesity reduces life expectancy by 5-20 years.
Among patients with obesity, bariatric surgery is associated with a longer life expectancy than usual obesity care.  Drinking, drug use, obesity, isolation are rolling back a half-century of gains in life expectancy in the United States.Deaths of despair account for the uptick in deaths from opioid and alcohol abuse and suicide.
As life expectancy increases and fertility rates decline most countries become aging societies with more people over the age of 65 than under 15.: The US is reaching this point.

About 96% of infants born in developed nations today will live to age 50 years or older, more than 84% will survive to age 65 years or older, and 75-77% of all deaths will predictably occur between age 65 and 95 years.

In the past 100 years life expectancy in the US has increased by 30 years.

The opioid epidemic is driving down life expectancy,

A 65-year-old woman has a 20 year additional life expectancy.

75-year-old women can expect 14.2 years of life (17 years if she is healthy).

80-year old women can expect 8.9 years of life.

The median life expectancy for an 80-year-old woman is approximately 10 years, however for women in the healthiest quartile, life expectancy is more than 14 years, whereas for women in the sickest quartile, life expectancy is less than five years.

85-year-old women can expect 6.9 years of life (9.6 years if she is healthy).

There is a 15 year life expectancy difference between the poorest and richest individuals in the US.

Men at age 60, 70, or 80 years can expect to live an additional 20.8, 13.7, and 8.2 years, respectively.

Life expectancy 47.3 years in 1900 up to 75.2 years for men and 80.4 years in 2005.

The number of persons over the age of 80 years has increased by more than 250% between 1960 and 2000, and by 2015 is expected to increase by another 50%.

Average American who reaches 65 years of age will live into his/her ninth decade.

By 2010 whites were expected to live about four years longer than blacks in the US.

Asian-American females average the longest longevity in the US.

Overall life expectancy in the US was 79 years in 2010.

By 2030 1 in 5 individuals in the U.S. will be 65 years or older.

Ten to 50% of individuals over 65 years can maintain physical and cognitive function and free of major chronic illnesses (Newman AB, Reed DM, WilcoxBJ, von Faber M).

In European men and women ages 70-90 that have moderate alcohol intake, do not smoke, adhere to a Mediterranean diet and maintain physical activity have a one-third lowered all-cause mortality than individuals with none or only one of these protective factors.

Treatment of heart disease has significantly contributed to the 12.9 percent increased in life expectancy in the U.S. over the last 50 years.

Studies have shown that black American males have the shortest lifespans of any group of people in the US, averaging only 69 years.

Malignancies, on average, result in 15 years of life lost per fatality.

The life expectancy of an individual with type 1 diabetes is 11 years less for men and 13 years less for women.

 

High levels of iron in the blood likely reduce longevity.

Genes involved in metabolizing iron likely increase healthy years of life in humans.

Patients with an advanced degree can be expected to live approximately a decade longer than individuals with less than a high school education.

Middle-aged white men and women without a college education have among the highest death rate in the US.
Individuals having less than a high school education or experience poverty have adverse longevity.

Recent increase in all cause mortality has occurred in mid life, 25-64 years, across all racial groups due to substance misuse, suicide and other social determinants of disease.

Positive affect is associated with a life expectancy of approximately 4-10 more years compared to more negative affectivity.

Homicide results in an average of 44.9 years of life lost per fatality.

HIV, on average, results in 35.2 years of life lost per fatality.

Heart disease and atherosclerosis result, on average, of 11 and 7.5 years of life lost per fatality , respectively.

Kidney cancer results in an average of 15.3 years of life lost per fatality.

Childhood cancers result in an average of 69 years of life lost per fatality.

Prostate cancer, on average, results in 8.9 years of life lost per fatality.

Estimated that current life expectancy would be one third to three quarters of a year higher if all over weight adults attained their ideal weights.

Lifespan could be extended by 12-14 years in middle aged adults who: have a healthy diet, regular exercise, not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and moderate alcohol consumption.

Favorably influenced by increased education.

Increased 30 years in the U.S. in the last century.

Life expectancy at age 40 among the wealthy in US has increased approximately 2.5 years between 2001and 2014, but has scarcely changed among the poor.

For successful aging biological age, is less than chronological age and functional status is maintained or the decline in functional status is relatively slow or delayed.

Patients with a brisk walking pace have a longer and similar life expectancy across the spectrum of BMI or other adiposity indices.

The coexistence of a low BMI in a slow walking pace is associated with the lowest life expectancy.

Social isolation is now identified as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, increases the risk of death by 29%.

Studies show that 1/5+1/3 of older adults lack companionship.
Social isolation contributes negatively to life expectancy.
Community engagement is positively correlated with life expectancy.
Caring for others positively affects all-cause mortality.
In a metaanalysis of 148 studies involving 408,849 participants indicated positive social relationships was associated with a 50% increase in survival, whereas poor social relationship are associated with a 29% increase in cardiovascular disease in the 32% increase in strokes (Holt-Lunstad J).

American Indian/Alaskan native people have a life expectancy five years shorter than that of the overall US population, with high mortality rate related to alcohol, liver disease, diabetes, unintentional injuries, and physical assault.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.