Topical eye drops.

Metabolism is by activation by ester hydrolysis, deactivation by beta oxidation.

Onset of action 3–4 hours

Biological half-life 17 minutes.

Duration of action ≥ 24 hours.

Excretion is mainly via kidney.

An eye solution to control the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension by reducing intraocular pressure.

A prostaglandin analogue that lowers the pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes through the uveoscleral tract.

An isopropyl ester prodrug.

It is inactive until it is hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active acid.

Brand name of Xalatan.

Clinical trials including patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, monotherapy with latanoprost reduced IOP levels by 22 to 39% over 1 to 12 months’ treatment.

Latanoprost is significantly more effective than timolol 0.5% twice daily in 3 of 4 large randomized, double-blind trials.

Has a stable long-term IOP-lowering effect in 1- or 2-years continuations, with no sign of diminishing effect during prolonged treatment.

Latanoprost is more effective than timolol in lowering IOP.

Can cause iris pigmentation.

In patients who have elevated IOP despite iridotomy and/or iridectomy, latanoprost is significantly more effective than timolol in two double-blind, monotherapy trials.

Side effects:> 5–15%: blurred vision, burning and stinging, conjunctival hyperemia, foreign body sensation, itching, increased pigmentation of the iris, causing lengthening and thickening of the eyelashes and punctate epithelial keratopathy.

Side effects: 4%: cold or upper respiratory tract infections, flu-like syndrome

Side effects:1–4%: dry eyes, excessive tearing, eye pain, lid crusting, lid edema, lid hyperemia, lid pain, photophobia.

1–2%: chest pain, allergic skin reactions, arthralgia, back pain, myalgia

< 1 % -only severe or life-threatening effects:asthma, herpes keratitis, iritis, keratitis, retinal artery embolus, retinal detachment, toxic epidermal necrolysis, uveitis, vitreous hemorrhage from diabetic retinopathy

Use in pregnancy classified as risk factor C.

The concomitant use of bimatoprost or other prostaglandins may result in increased intraocular pressure.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce or increase the effect of latanoprost.

Activated to the free acid in the cornea.

An analog of prostaglandin F2α that acts as a selective agonist at the prostaglandin F receptor, increasing outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes and thus lowering intraocular pressure.

Absorbed well through the cornea and completely hydrolysed to the active latanoprost acid.

Highest concentrations of the acid in the aqueous humour are reached two hours after application.

It’s effect to lowering of intraocular pressure starts after 3 to 4 hours, with the highest effect is found after 8 to 12 hours, and its action lasts at least 24 hours.

When latanoprost acid reaches the circulation, it is quickly metabolized in the liver and its blood plasma half life is only 17 minutes.

Its metabolites are mainly excreted via the kidney.

Exhibits thermal and solar instability.

Ultraviolet light causes rapid degradation of the drug.

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