Laparoscopic surgery

Compared with open surgery minimizes the decrease in postoperative pulmonary function in cholecystectomy, colectomy, gastroplasty and gastric bypass.

Injury rates low ranging from 5 per 10,000 to 3 per 1,000.

Incidence of major vascular injuries from trocars averages around 0.1%.

Major vascular injuries carry a mortality of 15%.

Procedures of any type carry with them a small but definite risk of injury to blood vessels, gastrointestinal organs and the genitourinary system.

Bowel injuries have a reported incidence of0.05 to 0.3%.

Intraoperative cholangiogram is part of the necessary skill of the surgeon performing laparoscopic surgery.

Carbon dioxide introduced into the abdomen increases intra-abdominal pressure which decreases venous return to the heart and elevates the diaphragm

Decreases pulmonary compliance, causes acidosis, hypercarbia, decreases cardiac output, increases mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure.

No single method of abdominal access in such surgery has been proved to be better than any other.

Causes higher mental strain in surgeons than performing conventional surgery.

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