Kussmaul breathing


Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure. 

A form of hyperventilation, which is any breathing pattern that reduces carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased rate or depth of respiration.

In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and shallow. 

As acidosis worsens, breathing gradually becomes deep, labored and gasping. 

The latter type of breathing pattern that is referred to as Kussmaul breathing.

Define as Kussmaul breathing as abnormally slow deep respiration characteristic of air hunger and occurring especially in acidotic states.

Kussmaul breathing occurs only in advanced stages of acidosis.

Kussmaul breathing is a characteristic deep, gasping, even desperate, type of respiratory distress . 

Kussmaul breathing is respiratory compensation for a metabolic acidosis, most commonly occurring in diabetics in diabetic ketoacidosis. 

Blood gases of a patient with Kussmaul breathing will show a low partial pressure of CO2 in conjunction with low bicarbonate because of a forced increased respiration.

Kussmaul breathing is associated with severely negative base excess.

Patients have air hunger, and it appears almost involuntary.

The metabolic acidosis produces hyperventilation, but at first is rapid and relatively shallow. 

Kussmaul breathing develops as the acidosis grows more severe. 

Kussmaul originally described as a  type of breathing of impending coma and imminent death in diabetic patients.

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