Ketogenic diet

The diet restricts carbohydrate intake to less than 25-50 g per day in attempt to enhance tissues to use fat or ketones as fuel during caloric restriction.

A ketogenic diet challenges the dogma that meat intake should be reduced and reverses the dietary macronutrient profile with fat and protein as major macronutrients instead of carbohydrates.

A KD diet promotes the production of ketone bodies from fatty acids, typically through very low carbohydrate (approximately 5% calories), high fat approximately, 75% calories, and moderate protein approximately 20% of caloric intake.

Most calories obtained in a KD diet are obtained from meat, dairy, fish, oils, and eggs, with some nuts, seeds, and non-starchy vegetables.

The standard western diet contains greater than 250 g per day of carbohydrates while a ketogenicdiet has fewer than 40 g of carbohydrates per day.

A low carbohydrate diet usually has modest carbohydrate reductions of less than 26% of calories or fewer than 100 to 130 g per day.

A medical diet that comes with serious risks.

A keto plan centers on fat, which supplies as much as 90% of daily calories.

Ketogenic diet is typically recommend only 5% of calories from carbohydrates, along with 75% from fat and 20% for protein.

KD patterns limit daily carbohydrate intake to 50gm, or less than 10% of daily caloric consumption.

The ketogenic diet is used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy.

It has become a fad diet for people attempting to lose weight.

Dieters trying this often do not achieve true ketosis as this requires extreme carbohydrate restriction, and maintaining a ketogenic diet is difficult.

High-quality research shows no long-term weight loss advantage to a ketogenic diet over a low fat diet.

Weight loss from a ketogenic approach is derived from fat mass lipolysis, saturating effects of protein rich foods, and ketosis appetite suppression, and an early diuretic effect of  ketone bodies.

May lead to weight loss in the short term, weight-loss is similar to what is achieved with other dietary approaches over the long term.

Early weight loss is primarily driven by the diuretic effect of ketosis.
In five trials ketogenic diet demonstrated its effectiveness for weight loss in obese patients.
Ketogenesis is associated with decreased hunger, decreased desire to eat, and increased satiety.

Side effects of the ketogenic diet can be constipation, tiredness and after a long term diet, in one out of 20 patients, kidney stones.

In a study comparing the effects of very low calorie ketogenic diet to a low calorie diet among obese patients with BMI of 30 or greater: the ketogenic diet group experienced greater weight loss at the culmination of the 1 study the intervention group had a mean weight loss of 19.9 kg versus only 7 kg in the control group.

However at the one year mark there was greater weight regain seen in the ketogenic group at 12.4% compared with the low-calorie group of 1.4%.

Ketogenic diet may improve blood glucose in the short term in patients with type two diabetes, but there is inconclusive evidence that it is superior to other weight loss regimens in the long term.

There is a lack of data about long-term safety, and low-carbohydrate intake may be associated with increased mortality.

Regular consumption of a self-reported diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat was associated with increased levels of LDL cholesterol and a higher risk of heart disease.

Some diet advocates make misleading claims that the ketogenic diet can treat or prevent cancer.

It is primarily used to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures in children.

Instead of relying on glucose that comes from carbohydrates, such as grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, the keto diet relies on ketone bodies, a type of fuel that the liver produces from stored fat.

Low carbohydrate intake results in the generation of ketone bodies, which are then used for the Krebs cycle.

It deprives one of carbohydrates, fewer than 20 to 50 grams of carbs per day.

It typically takes a few days to reach a state of ketosis.

Eating too much protein can interfere with ketosis.

It has a high fat requirement and followers must eat fat at each meal: a daily 2,000-calorie diet, that might have 165 grams of fat, 40 grams of carbs, and 75 grams of protein. However, the exact ratio depends on your particular needs.

Some healthy unsaturated fats are allowed on the keto diet — like nuts, seeds, avocados, tofu, and olive oil.

Saturated fats from oils, such as palm, coconut, lard, butter, and cocoa butter are encouraged in high amounts.

Most fruits, legumes, whole grains are off limits.

Long-term data on keto diets and cardiovascular, cancer another chronic disease risk are lacking.

Low carbohydrate diets have been linked to increased mortality.

Protein is part of the keto diet, but it doesn’t typically discriminate between lean protein foods and protein sources high in saturated fat such as beef, pork, and bacon.

Vegetables are restricted to leafy greens such as kale, Swiss chard, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, bell peppers, onions, garlic, mushrooms, cucumber, celery, and summer squashes.
Ketogenesis affects lipid metabolism by  stimulating hydrolysis of triglycerides and suppresses endogenous cholesterol synthesis secondary to lower insulin levels.
The ketogenic diet effect on lipid and apolipoprotein B levels is inconsistent, with some studies showing a reduction in LDL cholesterol while others report an increase.

Ketogenic diet has a beneficial impact on triglycerides and HDL cholesterol.

Ketogenic diet has numerous risks: increased saturated fat, increased LDL, deficiencies in micronutrients, including selenium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins B and C, increases liver fat.

The current recommended intake for protein averages 46 grams per day for women, and 56 grams for men, and this diet exceeds those levels.

The keto diet is low in fibrous foods like grains and legumes, and results in constipation.

Low-carb diets may cause confusion and irritability.

In the study following participants on a ketogenic diet for one year found that after three months participants had lower  systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
Ketogenic diet or associated with a restriction of dietary carbohydrates and have the potential for prevention and treatment of type two diabetes.
Short term benefit of ketogenic diet includes improve blood glucose levels and hemoglobin A-1 C in obese individuals, but these affects wane in the long term.

The ketogenic diet has benefits of improving glucose metabolism in patients with type two diabetes.

Diets such as Atkins or Paleo modify a true keto diet, but they come with the same risks.

The British Dietetic Association note that a medical ketogenic diet is a useful epilepsy treatment, but for weight loss named it one of the top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2019.

Patients on this type of diet commonly experience fatigue, poor mental energy, increased hunger, sleep disturbance, muscle cramps, constipation, nausea, and stomach discomfort.

A diet which limits carbohydrate to 5% of total calories makes it difficult to obtain optimal amounts of antioxidants and phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables.

In the first two weeks of the diet near maybe significant increases in your production and fluid shifts  that may require adjustment in medications for hypertension, heart failure and diabetes.

In an inpatient randomized trial of 20 healthy patients with a plant-based diet versus a ketogenic diet: The plant-based diet lead to significant less energy intake, but patients on the ketogenic diet lost more weight, and most of the weight loss was due to decreasing fat free(lean) mass, where is the plant-based diet had a significant decrease in fat mass.

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