Irisin

A peptide myokine is secreted in response to peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator and acts in white adipose tissue to promote the acquisition of brown adipocyte phenotype prone to energy expenditure.

A peptide structure of 112 amino acids.

It is the product of type I membrane protein cleavage encoded by fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) genes.

It is secreted mainly in skeletal muscle, especially in the perimysium, endomysium, and nuclear parts.

Adipose tissue , pancreas, sebaceous glands, and cardiac muscle have been identified as secretory tissues.

Irisin, a hormone that has the ability to activate beneficial changes in adipose tissue that improve muscle activity.

It is described as an exercise-induced myokine.

It is molecule produced by the muscle.

Skeletal muscle may be considered an endocrine organ, capable of secreting hormones called myokines, highlighting its muscular role in postprandial glucose uptake and lipid metabolism.

It is the product of type I membrane protein cleavage encoded by the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene.

It improves insulin resistance induced by a diet.

It may be helpful in monitoring or treating obesity and diabetes.


Cold exposure increases circulating irisin, which improves insulin sensitivity, increases bone quality and quantity, is involved in the building of lean muscle mass, and helps reduce obesity by converting white fat to brown fat.


Irisin provides many of the same benefits of exercise.


It may be involved in insulin resistance in older populations.

Healthy centenarians have increased serum irisin levels.

Irisin is associated with metabolic biomarkers only in nondiabetic patients.

Levels are significantly lower in young patients with myocardial infarction.

There are negative correlations between glucose and irisin metabolism.

May be associated with successful aging.

Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with telomere length, and a shorter telomere length is associated with aging but also the risk of myocardial infarction.

A study Chinese adults of obese patients found that the decrease in irisin is associated with an increased risk of presenting metabolic syndrome and hyperglycemia.

It is considered to be protective against insulin resistance, demonstrating negative associations with fasting insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin.

Contrary evidence that points to the absence of significant differences in irisin concentration when comparing it in adult groups with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, with adequate health status, as well as the presence of dyslipidemia and T2DM.

Lower concentrations of circulating irisin are present in men with obesity and without chronic degenerative diseases than in women.

Its major beneficial function is attributable to its ability to change subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue, increasing thermogenesis.

Its immunoreactivity has been found in salivary glands, ovaries, testes, rectum, intracranial arteries, tongue, optic nerve, stomach, neuronal cells, and sweat glands


It possibly has a role in regulation of thermogenesis. 


Proposed as a hormone capable of increasing energy expenditure, promoting weight loss, and decreasing insulin resistance produced by the diet

Measurement of irisin levels can be accomplished by

Irisin measurement is carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in plasma or serum (ELISA).

It is expressed in the muscle of pericardium, rectum, and heart and it also may be found in the kidney, liver, lungs, and adipose tissue.

Irisin is present in hormones such as insulin, resistin, and leptin.

It is proposed irisin hormone prevents the decrement of muscular function associated with advanced ages .

There is an increase in irisin in response to strenuous exercise, which is short lived.

Studies show decreased irisin concentrations in patients with T2DM regardless of the time of diagnosis and whether they are undergoing any treatment.

Lower concentrations occur with complications of T2DM

There is significant inverse associations between irisin and T2DM development.

Other studies have shown contradictory effects.

There is significantly decreased levels of irisin in patients with T2DM and renal failure, especially in stage 5 of chronic kidney disease.

It is decreased in people with T2DM and macrovascular complications such as coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular and cardiovascular disease, compared to patients without macrovascular complications.

In T1DM children and adolescents on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, elevated irisin levels predicted a better metabolic control.

Pardo et al. found a higher concentration of circulating irisin in obese people compared to individuals with normal weight and anorexia, reflecting a statistically significant positive correlation between the percentage of fat mass and irisin.

It has been shown that the concentration of irisin decreases as waist circumference, hip circumference increase.

Insulin resistance produces alterations in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle that decrease the uptake of glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia.

Irisin has the ability to activate beneficial changes in adipose tissue that improve muscle activity.

Moderate increases in irisin produce an improvement in insulin resistance induced by a diet.

Studies indicate that irisin is associated with metabolic biomarkers only in nondiabetic patients, and show negative correlations between glucose and irisin metabolism.

In obese Chinese adults, it was found that the decrease in irisin is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and hyperglycemia, considering it to be protective against insulin resistance because it shows negative associations with fasting insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin.

Studies have demonstrated that people with metabolic syndrome have higher concentrations of irisin and lower adiponectin, associating increased irisin with a greater amount of fat and lean mass during obesity.

There is contradictory evidence that points to the absence of significant differences in irisin concentration when comparing it in adult groups with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, with adequate health status.

Lower concentrations of circulating irisin are present in men with obesity and without chronic degenerative diseases than in women.

Estradiol, increases muscle mass and has been positively associated with irisin in middle-aged women regardless of BMI .

It is a hormone that predicts adverse coronary events in patients with coronary artery diseases: decreased concentrations of irisin after PCI, in this population, have a 12-month free survival rate..

In breast cancer, significantly lower levels of irisin have been found in women suffering from the disease compared with healthy women.

The increase in one unit of irisin decreases the probability of breast cancer by 90%, and it is proposed as a possible biomarker with great potential for the detection of this disease.

A interaction exists between bones and muscles been described, in which muscle is able to secrete molecules that affect bone formation.

It has been proposed as a hormone with a probable therapeutic effect for bone mass gain in osteopenia attributed to diseases or muscular diseases.


Decreased concentrations of irisin are found in women with osteoporotic fractures.

There is an inverse correlation between irisin and osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, regardless of fat and muscle mass and even bone mineral density and physical activity, attributing their results to probable positive effects of irisin on bone quality rather than on bone mass.

It promotes osteoblast differentiation.

Physical exercise has been associated with the reduction of physical and cognitive complications related to central nervous system disorders.

Moderate exercise is linked to increased neurogenesis, survival, and neuronal differentiation and migration.

It could have some functions in the central nervous system: it has been found in CSF, and its expression was detected in the neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, where the neuropeptide Y, which is related to appetite regulation.

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