Most costly disease process in the U.S.

Globally, injury accounts for more deaths than malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV combined, and is increasing.

Trauma is largely a condition of young people, and is the leading cause of life years lost between one and 75 years of age, and costs in the US are estimated at $4.2 trillion a year.

Acute injury contributes to death and disability in active individuals, counting for 5 million fatalities annually and 1/10 of the entire global burden of disease as measured by disability adjusted life years.

Approximately 2.2 million people 15 years or older sustain unintentional, nonfatal injuries each year.

Injury related conditions are the most common reasons for visitation to emergency departments.

Injuries are the leading cause of death in US children and adults between one and 44 years of age, resulting in 3.6 times as many deaths in this age group has cancer and heart disease combined.

This injury, death burden is disproportionately, carried by black, American, Indian, and Alaskan natives and low income communities.

Inequities in injury related processes include traffic related, fatalities, firearm related deaths and drownings.

Long-term physical, mental, and social consequences of moderate to severe traumatic injuries, and even of mild injuries in the context of a life-threatening event are substantial.

Fatal and non-fatal injuries caused the United States $4.2 trillion in 2019, including $327 billion in medical care, $69 billion in lost work, and 3.8 trillion in value of statistical life and quality of life losses.

People who have survived such injuries have increased rates of PSTD, chronic pain, functional limitation, poor health related quality of life, and social functioning years after injury, with delayed return to work and increased risk of developing other medical conditions.

The consequences of such injuries are worse among members of marginalized populations of low socioeconomic status, minority racial and ethnic groups: these populations are at increased risk for injury and have worst post injury outcomes.

People of color account for 40% of the US population but represent nearly 2/3 of people with violence related injuries.

An individual‘s education level is a better predictor of traumatic injury recovery than most clinical or injury related factors.

Injury is the leading cause of death in the US in patients younger than 45 years.

The most frequent injuries are falls and motor vehicle accidents.

Majority of emergency department injury-related visits are for minor head injuries, sprains and contusions.

Women are at higher risk than men for falling and for sustaining fall related injury.

Between 1998 and 2007 there was a threefold increase in the prevalence of CT or MRI imaging for emergency department visits for injury-related conditions, without an increase in the prevalence of diagnosis of life threatening conditions or a change in the disposition of patients(Korley FK et al).

In approximately 15% of patients who presented with injury related conditions in 2007 received a CT or MRI scan.

Approximately 1% of all unintentional injuries among individuals aged 15 years or greater are bathroom related.

Bathroom related injuries increase with age and are highest for persons 85 years or above.

80% of all bathroom injuries caused by falls.

In 2008 an estimated 234,094 unintentional nonfatal injuries occurred in bathrooms among persons aged 15 years or older, foreign injury rate of 96.4 per one hundred thousand population.

CDC analysis of non-fatal injuries treatied in US Hospital ED’s found a lifetime medical and work lost costs related to those injuries affecting roughly 30,000,000 patients per year, amounted to $457 billion in 2013.

The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program for 2013 revealed that the ED non-fatal injuries resulting in hospitalization was 951 per hundred thousand people and for patients who were treated and released, the rate was 8549 injuries per 100,000 people.

In the above study falls accounts for the largest share of injury costs at 37%, followed by transportation related injuries, primary vehicle crashes at 21%.

Nearly 90% of all ED treated injuries were for unintentional injuries.

The economic burden is much higher for assaults and self harm injuries.

Testosterone is associated with substantial injury risks before treatment that does not change after treatment:High persistent risks are apparent for intentional injuries including those is self-inflicted or from assault.

There is a lack of standardized, coordinated systems for tracking patients to meet their psychosocial rehabilitation needs.






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