Inhaled insulin

Non inferior to subcutaneous insulin.

Results in fewer episodes of hypoglycemia, less weight gain, but a great incidence of cough.

Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin, delivered with an inhaler into the lungs where it is absorbed.

In general inhaled insulins have been more rapidly absorbed than subcutaneous injected insulin, with faster peak concentration in serum and more rapid metabolism.

Afrezza, a monomeric inhaled, ultra rapid-acting insulin is an inhaled insulin that is commercialized.

Should not be used in individuals who smoke who have recently stopped smoking.

On COPD can cause bronchospasm.

Pulmonary function tests should be performed at baseline and after six months of therapy, and yearly thereafter.

Inhaled human insulin improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Trade name is Afrezza

A rapid-acting inhaled insulin to be administered prior to meals or within 20 minutes of starting a meal.

It is not a substitute for long-acting insulin and must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.

It is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis or in patients who smoke or who have chronic lung disease.

Reduces HbA1c levels by 0.4 percentage points.

The most common adverse reactions are hypoglycemia, cough, and throat pain or irritation.

Acute bronchospasm has been observed in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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