Inferior vena cava

Formed at the confluence of the of the left and right common iliac veins.

Many paired segmental lumbar veins drain into the IVC throughout its length.

Right gonadal vein empties directly into the IVC.

The azygous venous system connects with the IVC or renal veins.

The renal and hepatic veins enter the IVC.

Enters the thoracic cavity via the tendinous portion of the diaphragm and ends at its junction with the right atrium.

The infrahepatic IVC is derived from three paired veins during embryologic development and improper development or regression of these structures leads to anomalies.

Most common anomaly is the presence of a circumaortic or retro aortic left renal vein.

Anomalies of the IVC occur in 0.5% of the population , but is probably an underestimate.

Characteristically anomalies are associated with other congenital lesions including: dextrocardia, atrial septal defects, pulmonary artery stenosis, renal hypoplasia or agenesis, transposition of the abdominal viscera and polysplenia or asplenia.

Approximately 5% of cases of deep vein thrombosis in young patients are associated with inferior vena cava abnormalities (Lane DA).

Deep vein thrombosis occurs in patients with an absence of the IVC and it occurs bilaterally in more than 50% of cases (Chee YL).

Patients with an absence of the IVC may present with gross hematuria that may be related to congestion in the renal vasculature

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