Inerleukin2 receptor alpha (CD25)


Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain is also called CD25,and is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene.

Gene location  Chromosome 10.

The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. 

Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta (IL2RB) chains produce a medium-affinity receptor. 

It is a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes. 

A large proportion of resting memory T cells constitutively express IL2RA in humans.

IL2RA is expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, neuroblastomas, mastocytosis and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. 

It!is expressed on neoplastic cells in adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia. 

Infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, characterized by a reduction in the amount of IL2RA expressed on the surface of immune cells. 

The reduction in the amount of IL2RA expressed on the surface of immune cells leads to chronic immune suppression, becoming increasingly severe over the course of many years and ultimately resulting in death from Chagas’ disease if left untreated.

The multiple sclerosis drug daclizumab binds to and blocks IL2RA.

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