IL-1 refers to interleukin-1, which is a group of cytokines involved in the immune response and inflammation.

There are two main forms: IL-1 alpha (IL-1α) and IL-1 beta (IL-1β).

IL-1 plays a crucial role in activating immune cells, promoting inflammation, and regulating various physiological processes.

IL-1 is primarily produced by activated immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes in response to infection, injury, or other inflammatory stimuli.

It acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, meaning it can induce inflammation in the body.

IL-1 stimulates the production of other cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which further contribute to the inflammatory response.

In addition to its role in inflammation, IL-1 also plays a role in fever induction, promoting the production of acute-phase proteins, and facilitating the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury. It can also promote tissue repair and remodeling.

Dysregulation of IL-1 has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders: rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer.

IL-1 has a major role in neuroinflammation and is associated with various diseases, including some cancers, ankylosing spondylitis, and Graves’ disease.

IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, approved for rheumatoid arthritis treatment, reduces symptoms and slows joint destruction. 

It has also been prescribed for patients with indolent or smoldering myeloma at high risk of progression to multiple myeloma, providing a significant increase in progression-free disease years.

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