Occurs commonly in hospitalized patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
It is associated with increased mortality in both hospitals and community settings.
It is a diagnostic marker for malnutrition, however, it lacks sensitivity and specificity is an indicator of nutritional status.

Occurs in burn patients, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and malnutrition.

Can lead to reductions in serum total calcium level without a reduction in ionized serum calcium.

Acute and chronic inflammatory conditions affect serum albumin levels by altering hepatic protein metabolism inducing capillary leakage.
It is presently considered an unreliable nutritional marker in inflammatory states, but is a marker for disease severity.

It is possible to die of starvation with normal serum albumin levels.
Inflammation and elevated nutritional risk or independently associated with hypoalbuminemia in acutely ill patients.
At the time of acute hospital admission inflammation, elevated nutritional risk, and hypoalbuminemia are independently associated with all-cause mortality at 30 days.

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