Human parvovirus B19

Single stranded DNA virus that causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease).

A nonenveloped erythrovirus.

Causes transient aplastic crisis, hydrops fetalis, bone marrow suppression in immunocompromised hosts, purpuric vasculitis and both acute and chronic arthropathy in adults.

Commonly infects humans with about 50% of all adults showing infection during childhood or adolescence.

Often presents as seronegative arthritis in adults.

Up to 15% of newly diagnosed cases of arthritis are due to this virus (Corcoran A).

Animal parvovirus do not infect humans.

In utero an infected fetus may develop severe anemia that results in hydrops fetalis.

In children it may result in the exanthematous fifths disease.

Infection in adults may result in mild disease including fever, myalgias, arthralgias, rash, and occasionally red blood cell aplasia in individuals with ongoing hemolytic processes such as autoimmune or drug related anemias or sickle cell disease.

Transmission by transfusion has been documented but morbidity is limited, even in immunocompromised patients.

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