High intensity interval training (HIIT)

High-intensity interval training triggers cells to produce more proteins for their protein building ribosomes and their energy generating mitochondria, which effectively stops cellular level aging.


Exercise stimulates cells to generate more gene coding RNA copies for proteins of the mitochondria and proteins in charge of the growth of muscle. 

The ability of ribosomes to build proteins of the mitochondria also seemed to improve with exercise. 

High-intensity exercise programs in fact reverse age-related decline in the function of the mitochondria and proteins necessary for muscle building.


High-intensity interval training triggers cells to produce more proteins for their protein building ribosomes and their energy generating mitochondria, which effectively stops cellular level aging.

High intensity training (HIIT) optimizes improvements in cardiovascular fitness with less exercise time compared with moderate and low intensity exercise programs.

HIIT increases the adherence and participation rates in exercise training regimens compared with more traditional regimens and traditional exercise programs, in large part due to greater enjoyment of exercise and the time commitment.

HIIT Improves cardiovascular fitness and reduces cardio metabolic disease risk factors.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT).

It is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods, until exhaustion.

These intense workouts typically last under 30 minutes.

Times varying based on a participant’s current fitness level.

The intensity of HIIT also depends on the duration of a session.

HIIT training  provides improved athletic capacity and conditioning as well as improved glucose metabolism.

Compared with longer session exercise programs, HIIT may not be as effective for treating hyperlipidemia and obesity, or improving muscle and bone mass..

However, HIIT regimens produced significant reductions in the fat mass of the whole-body.

Participation requires extremely high levels of subject motivation.

HIIT exercise sessions consist of: a warm up period,  repetitions of high-intensity exercises, medium intensity exercises for active recovery, then a cool down period. 

High-intensity exercise should be done at near maximum intensity, and medium exercise should be about 50% intensity. 

The number and length of repetitions each depends on the exercise, but may be as little as three repetitions with just 20 seconds of intense exercise.

Most research on HIIT has been done using a cycling ergometer, but other exercises like a rowing, running, stair climbing and uphill walking can also be effective.

A common formula for high intensity interval,involves a 2:1 ratio of work to recovery periods, for example, 30–40 seconds of hard sprinting alternated with 15–20 seconds of jogging or walking, repeated to failure.

The entire HIIT session may last between four and thirty minutes.

Intervals of 30 seconds at 90% of power output at VO2 max followed by 30 seconds of rest allowed for the highest VO2 consumption and the longest workout duration at specified intensity. 

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that HIIT training and traditional endurance training both lead to significantly improved cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults ages 18–45 but greater improvements in VO2 max were seen in those participating in the HIIT exercise regimen.

Another analysis also found that HIIT regimens of one month or longer effectively improve cardiovascular fitness in adolescents and lead to moderate improvements in body composition.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that HIIT was more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training at improving blood vessel function and markers of blood vessel health.

A meta-analysis comparing HIIT to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in people with coronary artery disease found that HIIT leads to greater improvements in VO2 max but that MICT leads to greater reductions in body weight and heart rate.

Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by VO2 max, of individuals with lifestyle-induced chronic cardiovascular or metabolic diseases who completed a HIIT exercise program was nearly double that of individuals who completed a moderate intensity exercise program.

HIIT significantly lowers insulin resistance compared to continuous training or control conditions and leads to modestly decreased fasting blood glucose levels and increased weight loss compared to those who do not undergo a physical activity intervention.

HIIT is more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training at fasting insulin levels, with a 31% decrease and 9% decrease, respectively.

HIIT improves whole body fat oxidation and the capacity for skeletal muscle to oxidize fat in moderately active women. 

HIIT can result in modest reductions of subcutaneous fat in young and healthy individuals, but greater reductions for overweight individuals.

A 2018 meta-analysis examining 39 studies found HIIT, to be an efficient strategy in decreasing abdominal and visceral fat-mass deposits.

A 2017 study examined the effect of HIIT on cognitive performance among a group of children and found it to be beneficial to cognitive control and working memory capacity, suggesting a enhanced cognition, via short and potent exercise regimens.

A meta-analysis showed that HIIT can elicit short term brain function improvement, similar to those usually observed with aerobic exercise..

High intensity interval training improves cardio respiratory fitness and suppresses prostate cancer progression.



A study of young and old groups, were divided into high-intensity interval biking, another group of participants did weight strength training, and another group did a combination of interval training and strength training. 



Biopsies were then taken from the thigh muscles and the muscle cell molecular makeup was compared to samples of muscle cells taken from sedentary participants. 



Insulin sensitivity and lean muscle mass of the participants was assessed as well.



The better results were produced at the cellular level with high-intensity interval training: younger age group  participants from the interval training group had an increase of 49% in mitochondrial capacity, and an even more dramatic increase of 69% in the older participants. 



Insulin sensitivity was also improved with interval training, indicating a lower chance of getting diabetes. 



Interval training was not as effective at increasing muscle strength.



The energy producing capacity of the mitochondria of cells gradually diminishes as we age. 


The injury rate of nine injuries per  thousand training hours is three times higher than injuries during traditional weightlifting and powerlifting training.


The  most common sites for injuries included the lower limbs and back.



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