Hepatitis B vaccine

Made hepatitis B a preventable disease.

Incidence of hepatitis B has fallen 79% in the U.S. since the introduction of vaccine, to lowest rate recorded at 1.8 cases per 100,000 in 2005.

In the US most new hepatitis B virus infections occur in persons 30 years or older because universal hepatitis B vaccination has been recommended since 1991.

Safe, effective and universal vaccination is recommended.

Has resulted in a 50% reduction in incidence of infection where widespread vaccination programs are present.



Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B.



The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.



Recommended that health-care workers be vaccinated.



In healthy people routine immunization results in more than 95% of people being protected.



Pregnancy category US: C (Risk not ruled out).



Routes of administration Intramuscular.



Blood testing to verify that the vaccine has worked is recommended for patients high risk.



For individuals exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) but not immunized, hepatitis B immune globulin should be given in addition to the vaccine.



Vaccine is given intramuscularly.



Serious side effects from the hepatitis B vaccine are very uncommon.



Pain may occur at the site of injection.



It is safe for use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.



It is  not linked to Guillain–Barré syndrome.



The hepatitis B vaccines are produced with recombinant DNA techniques, and  are available both by themselves and in combination with other vaccines.



Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin, all are considered as preventive for babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).



Vaccination is recommended for nearly all babies at birth.



Hepatitis B  vaccination of newborns has reduced the risk of infection, but has also led to a marked reduction in liver cancer. 



In many areas, vaccination against hepatitis B is also required for all health-care and laboratory staff.



Vaccination recommended by CDC  against hepatitis B among patients with diabetes mellitus.



The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a pentavalent vaccine, combining vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B with the vaccine against hepatitis B.



A pentavalent vaccine combining vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis is approved.



After an interval of 1–4 months one can establish if there has been an adequate response- anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-Hbs) antibody level above 100 mIU/ml. 



A full response occurs in about 85–90% of individuals.


Universal vaccination of infants against hepatitis B has overcome the failure of risk-based vaccination and is reduced number of chronic hepatitis infections in populations at risk.


Screening for hepatitis B DNA and screening for hepatitis B surface antigen in mothers to be prenatally if those mothers test positive for hepatitis B surface antigens allows them to receive treatment to reduce their  infectivity as well as the complications from hepatitis B.


Still there are approximately 1000 babies born in the US each year who develop hepatitis B infection.



An antibody level between 10 and 100 mIU/ml is considered a poor response.



Such individuals should receive a single booster vaccination at this time, but do not need further retesting.



People who fail to respond with an anti-Hbs antibody level below 10 mIU/ml, should be tested to exclude current or past Hepatitis B infection, and given a repeat course of three vaccinations, followed by further retesting 1–4 months after the second course. 



Patients who still fail to respond will require hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) if later exposed to the hepatitis B virus.



Poor responses to the hepatitis B vaccine are mostly associated with being over the age of 40 years, obesity, celiac disease, tobacco smoking, alcoholism, , especially if with advanced liver disease.



The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).


 It is produced by yeast cells, into which the gene for HBsAg has been inserted. 


The vaccine is a recombinant vaccine generated by altered yeast carrying the protein manufacturing DNA for the hepatitis B surface antigen.


Afterward an immune system antibody to HBsAg is established in the bloodstream. 


The antibody is known as anti-HBs. 


This antibody and immune system memory then provide immunity to HBV infection.




The common brands available are Recombivax HB (Merck),[57] Engerix-B (GSK),[58] Elovac B (Human Biologicals Institute, a division of Indian Immunologicals Limited), Genevac B (Serum Institute), Shanvac B, Heplisav-B.


These vaccines are given by the intramuscular route.



Twinrix (GSK) is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B.



Pediarix is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis.



Vaxelis is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate), and hepatitis B.




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