Heat related disease

Process ranges from minor cramps to rash, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.

Heat related disease is the most common cause of severe weather fatalities in the United States.

0.02 deaths per 100,000 workers annually.


Between 1992 and 2019 more than 900 US workers died in almost 80,000 were seriously injured because of extreme heat exposure.

Deaths occur in agriculture, fishing, forestry and hunting industries.

Farm workers are the front line in terms of increased risk of heat related injuries.

The risk of dying for farm workers due to heat exposure is 20 times higher than in all US civilian workers.

Crop workers have an annual fatality rate of 0.39 deaths per 100,000.

Typical deaths occur among male crop workers aged 24-54 years.

Heat related disease is a leading cause of death and disability among US high school athletes.

High temperatures lead to rising core body temperatures and heat stress, heat exhaustion, cramps, heat stroke, or death.

Estimated average annual number of heat associated time-loss illnesses of 9237 among US high school athletes.

5,946 persons treated in US EDs each year for heat illness sustained while participating in a sport or recreational activity, for estimated annual rate of 2 visits per 100,000 population-72.5% males, 35.6% aged 15-19 years, and 7.1% required hospitalization.

Most frequent in summer months.

Without prompt management can result in organ failure, brain damage and mortality.

All cases are preventable.

People with chronic conditions like obesity or diabetes or a greater risk of heat related illness.

Pregnant women are at higher risk because of heat related disease.

Heat stress and dehydration have been linked with acute kidney injury and US farmworkers.

Associated with dehydration, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness and altered mental status.

Can lead to multiple organ system dysfunction from direct effects of heat and the body’ inflammatory response.

Associated with altered mental status, renal failure, coagulopathy, cardiovascular collapse, and an inflammatory response.

Older adults are more vulnerable to heat related complications.

Older patients are at greater risk based on social and behavioral factors, increased likelihood of being alone, being homebound, or taking medications that interfere with fluid balance.

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