Healthy diet


A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve overall health. 



A healthy diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancer.



A healthy diet includes essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate calories.



A healthy diet may contain fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages, fat-free or low in fat dairy, lean proteins, plant-based oils, and decreased consumption of foods high in salt, saturated or trans fats, and added sugars.



It contains leafy green, cruciferous, and other vegetables.



A healthy diet can include a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods.



A non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet.



Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats.



Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. 



Avoiding trans fats.



Eating  at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day.



Potatoes, and sweet potatoes, and other starchy roots do not count.



A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts.



Limiting  intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie.



Sugars below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better for a good diet.



Limit salt / sodium intake from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. 



Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.



The WHO suggests that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8% of deaths worldwide.



Healthy diets should avoid poisonous substances with  heavy metals and carcinogenic substances, such as benzene.



Healthy diets avoid foods contaminated by human pathogens, such as E. coli, and tapeworm eggs.



Healthy diets replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet, which can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes.



The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends three healthy patterns of diet, for a 2000 kcal diet.



Sustainable diets have diets: higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds: lower in calories and animal-based foods: more health promoting and : less environmental impact than is the current U.S. diet. 



It is recommended that a diet consist  mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis on a wide range of whole grains, legumes, and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. 



A healthy diet includes a range of non-starchy vegetables and fruits with different colors including red, green, yellow, white, purple, and orange. 



Tomatoes cooked with oil, allium vegetables like garlic, and cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, provide some protection against cancer. 



A healthy diet is low in energy density, that protects against weight gain and associated diseases. 



A healthy diet limits consumption of sugary drinks, energy rich foods, fast foods and red meat, and avoids processed meats to improve health and longevity. 



Children should consume less than 25 grams of added sugar (100 calories) per day for a healthy diet.



Decreasing total fat is no longer recommended, but instead, the recommendation to lower risk of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats.



Choosing good carbohydrates with whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans. 



Avoiding white bread, white rice, and the like as well as pastries, sugared sodas, and other highly processed food.



Good protein choices include fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. 



Avoiding red meat.



Choosing foods containing healthy fats: Plant oils, nuts, and fish.



Limiting consumption of saturated fats, and avoiding  foods with trans fat.



A fiber-filled diet includes whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.



The more colorful and varied fruits and vegetables the better.



Adequate amounts of calcium in the diet.



Prefer water over other beverages. 



Avoid sugary drinks, and limit intake of juices and milk. 



Coffee, tea, artificially-sweetened drinks, 100% fruit juices, low-fat milk and alcohol can fit into a healthy diet but are best consumed in moderation. 



Sports drinks are recommended only for people who exercise more than an hour at a stretch.



Limited salt intake. 



More fresh foods, instead of processed ones.



Drink alcohol in moderation. 



Consider intake of daily multivitamin and extra vitamin D, as these have potential health benefits.



A diet of minimally processed foods, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention.



The Cochrane review concluded that a long term low sodium diet usefully lowers blood pressure, both in people with hypertension  and in those with normal blood pressure.



The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to control hypertension. 



The DASH diet limits  intake of sodium, and the diet also generally encourages the consumption of nuts, whole grains, fish, poultry, fruits, and vegetables while lowering the consumption of red meats, sweets, and sugar. 



The DASH diet is also rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as protein.



The ((Mediterranean diet)), which includes limiting consumption of red meat and using olive oil in cooking, has also been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes.


Mediterranean diet increases gut bacteria linked to healthy ageing in older adults



Weight loss diets are divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie.



A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types: low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat, with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies.



The meta-analysis, showed after two years, all of the diets that reduced calories resulted in equal weight loss regardless of whether changes in fat or carbohydrate consumption were emphasized.



Gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders.: celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy.



A gluten-free diet is the only available treatment.



A diet high in fruit and vegetables appears to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and death, but not cancer.



An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.



The WHO estimates that 2.7 million deaths each year are attributable to a diet low in fruit and vegetables.



Low fruit and vegetable diets are estimated to cause about 19% of gastrointestinal cancer, 31% of ischemic heart disease, and 11% of strokes: making it one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide, and the 4th leading risk factor for any disease.



Polyunsaturated fats tend to decrease both types of cholesterol.



 Monounsaturated fats tend to lower LDL and raise HDL.



Saturated fats tend to either raise HDL, or raise both HDL and LDL.



Trans fat tends to raise LDL and lower HDL.



Dietary cholesterol is only found in animal products such as meat, eggs, and dairy. 


The effect of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol levels is controversial. 


Healthy dietary patterns have been linked to lower inflammatory markers. 

This includes the Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil and oily fish, and low in ultra-processed, refined foods.

The five most healthy foods are:

1. Leafy Greens: Vegetables like spinach, kale, and Swiss chard are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

They are low in calories and high in fiber, promoting good digestion and overall health.

2. Berries: Fruits like blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries are packed with antioxidants and vitamins.

They are also relatively low in sugar compared to other fruits and are beneficial for heart health.

3. Fish: Fatty fish such as salmon, sardines, and mackerel are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, promoting brain health, and supporting heart health.

4. Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and flaxseeds are high in healthy fats, fiber, and essential nutrients.

They can help reduce the risk of heart disease and promote satiety.

5. Whole Grains: Foods like quinoa, brown rice, whole-wheat bread, and oats are rich in fiber, antioxidants, and essential nutrients.

They can help regulate blood sugar levels and improve digestion.





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