A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. 

Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.

Eaten fresh or in dried form, as raisins, currants and sultanas, grapes also hold cultural significance in many parts of the world, particularly for their role in winemaking. 

Other grape-derived products include various types of jam, juice, vinegar and oil.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 288 kJ (69 kcal)

Carbohydrates 18.1 g

Sugars 15.48 g

Dietary fiber 0.9 g

Fat 0.16 g

Protein 0.72 g

Vitamins Quantity %DV†

Thiamine (B1) 6% 0.069 mg

Riboflavin (B2) 6% 0.07 mg

Niacin (B3) 1% 0.188 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5) 1% 0.05 mg

Vitamin B6 7% 0.086 mg

Folate (B9) 1% 2 μg

Choline 1% 5.6 mg

Vitamin C 4% 3.2 mg

Vitamin E 1% 0.19 mg

Vitamin K 14% 14.6 μg

Minerals Quantity %DV†

Calcium 1% 10 mg

Iron 3% 0.36 mg

Magnesium 2% 7 mg

Manganese 3% 0.071 mg

Phosphorus 3% 20 mg

Potassium 4% 191 mg

Sodium 0% 2 mg

Zinc 1% 0.07 mg

Water 81 g

Yeast, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine. 

In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of the fruit into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation. 

The more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness.

Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. 

White grapes are actually green in color.

Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.

Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.

Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape.

Raw grapes are 81% water, 18% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and have negligible fat.

A 100-gram (3+1⁄2-ounce) amount of raw grapes supplies 69 kilocalories of food energy and a moderate amount of vitamin K (14% of the Daily Value), with no other micronutrients in significant content.

Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. 

A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned with no added sugar and natural.

Vineyard areas are increasing by about 2% per year.

There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety, and the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless.

Cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). 

Almost all cultivated grapes belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera.

Table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. 

Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with relatively thin skin. 

Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins.

Thick skin is a desirable characteristic in winemaking, as much of the the aroma in wine comes from the skin.

Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. 

By comparison, commercially produced 100% grape juice, made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight.

Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. 

Grapevines are propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. 

It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.

There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. 

An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds.

Grapes are eaten raw, dried as raisins, currants and sultanas, or cooked. 

Grapes are used in winemaking. 

Grapes can be processed into a multitude of products such as jams, juices, vinegars and oils. 

Commercially cultivated grapes are classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption.

41 healthy adults who consumed the equivalent of three servings of grapes every day for 2 weeks while maintaining a restricted diet: no significant changes in the overall diversity of their gut bacteria, but the populations of certain types of gut bacteria were found to either increase or decrease after consumption of grapes. 

A raisin is any dried grape. 

A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape.

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. 

The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. 

Grape juice that has been pasteurized, removing any naturally occurring yeast, will not ferment if kept sterile, and thus contains no alcohol. 

Winemaking from red and white grape flesh and skins produces substantial quantities of organic residues, collectively called pomace which includes crushed skins, seeds, stems, and leaves generally used as compost.

Grape pomace makes up some 10-30% of the total mass of grapes crushed, and contains phytochemicals, such as unfermented sugars, alcohol, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and numerous other compounds, some of which are harvested and extracted for commercial applications.

Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes.

Flavan-3-ols (catechins) are the more abundant class of polyphenols in white varieties.

Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products. 

Grape seed oil, including tocopherols (vitamin E) have high contents of phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid.

Resveratrol, a stilbene compound, is found in widely varying amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds.

Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.

French people tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, yet the incidence of heart disease remains low.

This phenomenon has been termed the French paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine, among other dietary practices. 

Alcohol consumption in moderation may be cardioprotective by its minor anticoagulant effect and vasodilation.

Moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits.

Alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.

The consumption of grapes and raisins presents a potential health threat to dogs. 

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