Increases neutrophil function and counts, increases monocyte/macrophage function and counts, increases dendritic cell function, mobilizes CD34 cells into the peripheral blood stream, indirectly increases lymphocyte activation and increases natural killer cell activity.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine that enhances activation of dendritic cells for antigen presentation.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor potentiates T- and B-lymphocyte antitumor functions.
Systemic administration of GM-CSF has shown activity and prostate, ovarian cancer, melanoma and lymphoma.
GM-CSF may induce negative regulatory immune responses.
GM-CSF has receptors on epithelial type II epithelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages.
GM-CS stimulates the maturation of alveolar macrophages, which are pivotal to surfactant catabolism.
Stimulates the number and differentiation of dendritic cells and helps to delay recurrence of melanoma in high risk patients.
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-in high risk melanoma it may increase the number and differentiation of dendritic cells and the increase in dendritic cell count may correlate with delay in recurrences.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade with ipilimumab prolongs survival in patients with metastatic melanoma and the addition of GM-CSF results on longer overall survival and lower toxicity, but no difference in progression free survival.
The addition of GM-CSF to ipilimubab resulted in 69% survival of patients at 1 year, with metastatic melanoma compared to 53% of those that got ipilimubab alone, for a 35% reduction in risk of death (Hodi SF et al).