Gram negative bacteria

Cell walls contain liposaccharide, cytokines, and are associated with fever and septic shock.

Cause wide variety of infections involving the urinary tract, respiratory tract, sinuses, middle ear and meninges.

Gram negative bacteria associated with about 30% of hospital acquired infections.

Gram negative organisms predominate in ventilator associated pneumonia(47%), and urinary tract infections (45%)(Hidron AI).

Among the most common organisms that cause sepsis in the ICU setting

Gram negative bacteria account for about 70% of ICU infections.

Top 4 ICU gram negative ICU isolates are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Klebsiella.

Progressively more resistant to antibiotics.

They have the ability to acquire anabiotic-resistant genes, especially in the presence of antibiotic selection pressure.

These organisms efficient at up-regulating or acquiring genes that code for development of antibiotic drug resistance.

Rare cause of endocarditis on natural heart valves (except for Pseudomonas infections in intravenous drug abusers) but are occasionally the cause on prosthetic valves.

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