An amino sugar that may play a role in cartilage formation and repair.

Is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.

One of the most abundant monosaccharides.

It is produced by the hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat.

It is one of the most common non-vitamin, non-mineral, dietary supplements.

Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement.

It is not a pharmaceutical drug.

It is marketed to support the structure and joint structure and function.

It is targeted to people suffering from osteoarthritis.

Common forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetylglucosamine.

Only glucosamine sulfate is given an effective rating for treating osteoarthritis.

Often sold in combination with other supplements such as chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane.

There is insufficient evidence that this treatment is helpful in knee arthritis.

A recent systemic review and metsanalysis of pharmacological treatments for Knee osteoarthritis found glucosamine was the only drug with significant improvement of pain (Gregoria D).

Clinical studies: some reporting relief from arthritic pain and stiffness, while higher quality studies report no benefit above placebo.

There is no evidence it prevents or limits joint damage after injury.

Has no additional effect on any rehabilitation outcome when given to athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Glucosamine with or without chondroitin elevates the international normalized ratio (INR) in individuals who are taking warfarin.

It may interfere with the efficacy of chemotherapy for treating cancer symptoms.

Adverse effects include; stomach upset, constipation, diarrhea, headache, and rash.

As it is usually derived from the shells of shellfish, it may be unsafe for those with shellfish allergy.

Alternative, non-shellfish-derived forms of glucosamine are, however, available.

Oral glucosamine at standard doses does not affect insulin resistance.

Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi.

Glucosamine sulfate uptake in synovial fluid may be as much as 20%, or could be negligible, indicating no biological significance.

A precursor of the proteoglycans that make up articular cartilage.

Used for osteoarthritis.

Evidence for benefit is inconsistent.

An aminomonosaccharide derivative of glucose and a precursor of the glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that make up articular cartilage.

Metabolized by hexosamine pathway, both glucose and glucosamine enter this pathway as glucosamine-6-phosphate.

A dietary supplement without serious adverse effects.

It may affect the glucose transport and then soon to resistance in humans, especially among those with impaired glucose tolerance.

However, there is no apparent effect on mean hemoglobin A-1 C levels.

In a double blind placebo controlled study the use of oral glucosamine 1.5 gm daily in chronic low back pain with osteoarthritis no benefit over placebo was noted (Wilkens P).

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