Global warming

Global warming is the current long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate.

The average global temperature is now 1.1° centimeter above preindustrial levels.

The preferred climate goal 1.5°C by 2030.

The planet has warmed approximately 2 degrees F since preindustrial times, and 2019 was the second warmest year on record.

Climate change is shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.

The extent of change is most extreme in Highland and polar regions, and temperatures in tropical regions are coming closer to the thermal limits of many organisms.

An increase in ambient temperature influences the transmission of waterborne pathogens directly through effects on their growth, survival, and infectivity, and indirectly places persons at risk for exposure.

A warming of 2.5°C to 2.9°C or more by the end of the century is expected.

Warmer air results in more heat-related illnesses, aggravated by humidity from increased moisture that a warm atmosphere holds.
Warmer atmosphere results in increases in food borne, waterborne, and vectorborne illnesses, with associated undernutrition and increased food insecurity, increased incidence and severity of asthma and other respiratory diseases, and increased mental health problems.
Many climate sensitive health risks have been established including: mortality caused by heat waves, respiratory illness from smog, ozone, and allergenic pollen, mental and physical effects of wildfires, infectious disease is such as West Nile virus, injuries from flooding, and malnutrition from reduce crop yields.
It is estimated that approximately 3.3to 3.6 billion people live in areas that are highly vulnerable to climate change with irreversible impacts on natural and human systems, beyond abilities to adapt.
The heightened frequency and intensity of extreme temperature changes reduces food and water security.
Prolonged rising temperatures and periods of drought contribute to the death of crops and trees, which increase malnutrition and hunger.
Climate change exacerbates adverse effects of air pollution on health with: higher temperatures enhancing ground level ozone information, increased risk of wildfires and dust storms.

PM 25 from wildfire smoke and the storms increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Higher temperatures increase the demand for electricity, which increases fossil fuel combustion and pollution.

It is projected that with high greenhouse gases emissions, the frequency of wildfires will substantially increase over 74% of the global landmass by the end of this century.

Warmer atmosphere results in mass migrations of climate refugees having been displaced by rising sea levels, economic scarcity, with associated health issues of refugees, and conflicts resulting from competitions among nations for scarcer resources.

Presently, the term global warming refers to the mainly human-caused observed increase in global surface temperatures.

There have been much earlier periods of global warming.

The terms global warming and climate change are commonly used interchangeably.

Climate change, however, includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region.

Burning fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases and causes climate change and air pollution.

The combustion of fossil fuels; coal petroleum (oil), and natural gas, is the major source of both air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions driving climate change.

Climate change causes global warming, as greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide trap infrared radiation and radiate it back to the surface, which warms the planet.

Climate change amplifies storm hazards by ocean warming, air temperature rise, rising ocean heat content, and increasing atmospheric moisture capacity, compounded by a rise in sea levels.

Atlantic hurricanes have become stronger, weather, and slower moving over the past few decades.

Many changes since mid 20th century have been unprecedented compared to records over decades to thousands of years.

In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded, that is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.

The fetus, infant, and child are vulnerable to exposure to air pollution and climate change, which take a major toll on the physical and mental health of children. 

All children are at risk of fossil fuel exposures, and the greatest burden falls on those were socially and economically disadvantaged.

Billions of tons  of carbon dioxide and more than 120 million metric tons of methane, the two key greenhouse gases, have been emitted annually into the atmosphere from the production and burning a fossil fuels for energy and transportation.

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels have risen sharply in the past 70 years, reaching 35 billion metric tons of CO2 admitted in 2020, compared with just 5 billion metric tons in 1950.

The combustion of fossil fuels has created a parallel crisis of air pollution to climate change, because of burning of these fuels releases massive amounts of airborne fine respiratory particles within aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM 25), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, mercury, and volatile chemicals that form ground level ozone.

The emission of greenhouse gases of significance include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

Global greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase markedly as a result of agricultural emissions, which is greater than the summation of current global emissions from all forms of transportation.
Livestock, and its supply chain, contribute to greenhouse, gas admissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
Livestock farming accounts for 50% of methane and 60% of nitrous oxide emissions, which respectively have 25 and 298 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide on a mass basis.
Most nitrogen pollution in waste water is due to animal-based proteins sources and inefficient agricultural practices, which lead to acid rain and toxic algal blooms that cause dead zones of aquatic life.

Mean greenhouse gas emissions for different food types:


CO2-Ceq per G protein


Ruminant meat 62


Recirculating Aquaculture 30


Trawling Fishery 26


Non-recirculating Aquaculture 12


Pork 10


Poultry 10


Dairy 9.1


Non-trawling Fishery 8.6


Eggs 6.8


Starchy Roots 1.7


Wheat 1.2


Maize 1.2


Legumes 0.25

The transportation sector currently contributes an estimated 14% of greenhouse gas emissions.
Collectively, US healthcare produces approximately 10% of the national greenhouse gas emissions, and increase of over 28% in the past 10 years and greater  than the whole United Kingdom.

The biggest proportions of healthcare related greenhouse gas emissions come from hospitals, physician services

The US healthcare emissions is about 655 million metric tons of carbon dioxide with an annual loss of 470 disability adjusted life years, and is associated with an annual loss of life in the United States equal to leukemia or prostate cancer.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From U.S. Healthcare On the Rise


The U.S. healthcare sector pollutes more than any other industrialized health system in the world


The U.S. healthcare system has increased its greenhouse gas emissions across the last decade, and is  the greatest polluter of any industrialized healthcare system in the world.


Greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. healthcare system rose by 6% across the last decade.


In 2018, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic air pollutants resulted in the loss of 388,000 disability-adjusted life-years.


Money spent on drugs, medical devices, hospital supplies, and other resources result in emissions from the production of those goods.


The U.S. healthcare system is responsible for around a quarter of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, and the damage stemming from this pollution is equivalent to that of deaths from preventable medical errors.


Emissions classified into three groups: direct from hospitals and other healthcare sectors: energy use and anesthetic gases, indirect from expenditures on electricity, and indirect from the production of healthcare goods and services.


Emissions from the healthcare system make up around 8.5% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S.


More than 80% of national healthcare sector emissions were contributed by the supply chain, with pharmaceuticals and chemicals having the most impact on pollution. 


Expenditures on electricity contributed to about 11% of overall healthcare emissions, and direct emissions from hospitals and other facilities contributed about 7%.


Do you effects of climate change on oncology patients is particularly significant due to the increases in temperature, infectious disease, pollution, and malnourishment may have a greater effect on those with compromised immunity and comorbid illnesses.

Weather extremes subject patients with medical conditions resulting in the most harm.

Methane has a heat-trapping potential nearly 100 times larger than carbon dioxide.

Nitrous oxide has a global warming potential almost 300 times greater than carbon dioxide.

Cows produce between 250 and 500 liters of methane a day.

To limit global warming to 1.5C (2.7F) above preindustrial levels CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate disruption that can adversely affect natural ecosystems and the global population.
Climate change increases financial hardship, which is associated with higher rates of financial toxicity.
Heat related mortality among people over the age of 65 is increased by more than 50% in the last 20 years.
Increased temperatures have brought: increased dehydration, increased renal function loss, increased dermatologic malignancies, tropical infections, adverse mental health outcomes, pregnancy complications, allergies, cardiovascular and pulmonary  morbidity  and mortality.
Heat related harms disproportionately affect the most vulnerable populations: children, older populations, ethnic minorities, poor communities, and individuals with underlying health problems.
Air pollutants and climate change interact to affect children’s health.
Air stagnation and higher temperatures accelerate the formation of ozone, which is associated with respiratory illness in children and with preterm births.
Air pollutants can increase allergen absorption in the lungs and promote sensitization of the airway.
There is a synergy in the synergistic effect of heat and air pollution on the incidence of hospitalizations related to childhood asthma.
The concurrent exposure to climate hazards and unsafe air quality is a common process and there is an estimated 850 million children, or one and three, worldwide that lives in an area where there are at least four climate in environmental shocks; drought, flooding, air pollution, and water scarcity.
Global warming is contributing to the decline in global yield potential for major crops.
It is postulated that ecosystems essential to human health, the widespread destruction in nature, including habitats and species, eroding water and food security and increasing the chance of pandemics.

Increased climate sensitive aquatic pathogens have led to higher incidence of food and water borne diseases, and global warming incidence of vector borne diseases such as those spread but via ticks, fleas and mosquitoes are expected to continue climbing because of arthropods widening geographic ranges, extended seasonal activity, and increased abundance.

The heightened incidence of Lyme disease, the risk of chikunguya, dengue and West Nile virus will likely increase.
Heavy rainfall and higher temperatures boost the risk of diarrheal diseases like cholera, especially in Africa and Asia.
Heavy rainfall results and contaminated waste water making its way into drinking water supply, leading to increased gastrointestinal illness.
In the US estimates suggest that each additional day of extreme heat per month is associated with 0.07 additional deaths per hundred thousand adults: greater deaths are seen among older adults, men, and Blacks.
Climate change is associated with severe mental disease health issues including: anxiety, depression, increased use of alcohol and other drugs, and increased suicide.
Extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, and severe heat result in loss culture and livelihoods.
Approximately 20 to 30% of people who experience a hurricane or flood develop depression or post traumatic stress disorder, within the first few months after the incident.
Vulnerability to climate change is often high in poverty stricken areas.
Climate change is associated with increased risks of several with vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue, Zika, West-Nile virus and Lyme disease due to changes in the duration of the transmission season and geographic spread of the disease vectors.
The geographic ranges of mosquitoes have expanded because of one with temperatures, with the effect on health greatest among children in tropical regions.
Warming and other climate changes of precipitation, with increased flooding, and drought in some areas have implications for vector borne diseases through their affects on pathogens, vectors and hosts, as well as the ability to prevent and treat these diseases.
disparities exist between higher and lower income countries, and is evident within the United States, where Blacks, and Hispanics have a disproportionate exposure to air pollution, and the effects of climate change.

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