Global warming

Global warming is the current long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate.

The planet has warmed approximately 2 degrees F since preindustrial times, and 2019 was the second warmest year on record.

Climate change is shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.

Walmer air results in more heat-related illnesses, aggravated by humidity from increased moisture that a warm atmosphere holds.
Warmer atmosphere results in increases in food borne, waterborne, and vectorborne illnesses, with associated undernutrition and increased food insecurity, increased incidence and severity of asthma and other respiratory diseases, and increased mental health problems.
Many climate sensitive health risks have been established including: mortality caused by heat waves, respiratory illness from smog, ozone, and allergenic pollen, mental and physical effects of wildfires, infectious disease is such as West Nile virus, injuries from flooding, and malnutrition from reduce crop yields.

Climate change exacerbates adverse effects of air pollution on health with: higher temperatures enhancing ground level ozone information, increased risk of wildfires and dust storms.

PM 25 from wildfire smoke and the storms increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Higher temperatures increase the demand for electricity, which increases fossil fuel combustion and pollution.

It is projected that with high greenhouse gases emissions, the frequency of wildfires will substantially increase over 74% of the global landmass by the end of this century.

Warmer atmosphere results in mass migrations of climate refugees having been displaced by rising sea levels, economic scarcity, with associated health issues of refugees, and conflicts resulting from competitions among nations for scarcer resources.

Presently, the term global warming refers to the mainly human-caused observed increase in global surface temperatures.

There have been much earlier periods of global warming.

The terms global warming and climate change are commonly used interchangeably.

Climate change, however, includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region.

Burning fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases and causes climate change and air pollution.
Climate change causes global warming, as greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide trap infrared radiation and radiate it back to the surface, which warms the planet.

Climate change amplifies storm hazards by ocean warming, air temperature rise, rising ocean heat content, and increasing atmospheric moisture capacity, compounded by a rise in sea levels.

Atlantic hurricanes have become stronger, weather, and slower moving over the past few decades.

Many changes since mid 20th century have been unprecedented compared to records over decades to thousands of years.

In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded, that is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.

The emission of greenhouse gases of significance include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

Global greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase markedly as a result of agricultural emissions, which is greater than the summation of current global emissions from all forms of transportation.

Mean greenhouse gas emissions for different food types:



g CO2-Ceq per G protein



Ruminant meat 62



Recirculating Aquaculture 30



Trawling Fishery 26



Non-recirculating Aquaculture 12



Pork 10



Poultry 10



Dairy 9.1



Non-trawling Fishery 8.6



Eggs 6.8



Starchy Roots 1.7



Wheat 1.2



Maize 1.2



Legumes 0.25

The transportation sector currently contributes an estimated 14% of greenhouse gas emissions.
Collectively, US healthcare produces approximately 10% of the national greenhouse gas emissions, and increase of over 28% in the past 10 years and greater  than the whole United Kingdom.
The biggest proportions of healthcare related greenhouse gas emissions come from hospitals, physician services

The US healthcare emissions is about 655 million metric tons of carbon dioxide with an annual loss of 470 disability adjusted life years, and is associated with an annual loss of life in the United States equal to leukemia or prostate cancer.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From U.S. Healthcare On the Rise




The U.S. healthcare sector pollutes more than any other industrialized health system in the world



The U.S. healthcare system has increased its greenhouse gas emissions across the last decade, and is  the greatest polluter of any industrialized healthcare system in the world.



Greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. healthcare system rose by 6% across the last decade.



In 2018, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic air pollutants resulted in the loss of 388,000 disability-adjusted life-years.



Money spent on drugs, medical devices, hospital supplies, and other resources result in emissions from the production of those goods.



The U.S. healthcare system is responsible for around a quarter of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, and the damage stemming from this pollution is equivalent to that of deaths from preventable medical errors.



Emissions classified into three groups: direct from hospitals and other healthcare sectors: energy use and anesthetic gases, indirect from expenditures on electricity, and indirect from the production of healthcare goods and services.



Emissions from the healthcare system make up around 8.5% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S.



More than 80% of national healthcare sector emissions were contributed by the supply chain, with pharmaceuticals and chemicals having the most impact on pollution. 



Expenditures on electricity contributed to about 11% of overall healthcare emissions, and direct emissions from hospitals and other facilities contributed about 7%.


Do you effects of climate change on oncology patients is particularly significant due to the increases in temperature, infectious disease, pollution, and malnourishment may have a greater effect on those with compromised immunity and comorbid illnesses.

Weather extremes subject patients with medical conditions resulting in the most harm.

Methane has a heat-trapping potential nearly 100 times larger than carbon dioxide.

Nitrous oxide has a global warming potential almost 300 times greater than carbon dioxide.

Cows produce between 250 and 500 liters of methane a day.

To limit global warming to 1.5C (2.7F) above preindustrial levels CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate disruption that can adversely affect natural ecosystems and the global population.
Climate change increases financial hardship, which is associated with higher rates of financial toxicity.
The risks of health increases with temperature is above 1.5°C.
Heat related mortality among people over the age of 65 is increased by more than 50% in the last 20 years.
Increased temperatures have brought: increased dehydration, increased renal function loss, increased dermatologic malignancies, tropical infections, adverse mental health outcomes, pregnancy complications, allergies, cardiovascular and pulmonary  morbidity  and mortality.
Heat related harms disproportionately affect the most vulnerable populations: children, older populations, ethnic minorities, poor communities, and individuals with underlying health problems.
Global warming is contributing to the decline in global yield potential for major crops.
It is postulated that ecosystems essential to human health, the widespread destruction in nature, including habitats and species, eroding water and food security and increasing the chance of pandemics.

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