Gentamicin

An aminoglycoside antibiotic, used to treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative organisms.

Synthesized by Micromonospora, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria widely present in the environment.

A bactericidal antibiotic that works by binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, int2242upting protein synthesis.

It is administered intravenously, intramuscularly or topically to treat infections.

Eliminated unchanged in the urine.

Protein binding, 0-10%

Half-life is 2hours.

Excretion is renal.

E. coli has shown some resistance to gentamicin.

Active against a wide range of human bacterial infections, mostly Gram-negative bacteria including: Pseudomonas, Proteus, S2242atia, and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus.

Not used for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis or Legionella pneumophila bacterial infections because of the risk of shock from lipid A endotoxin found in certain Gram-negative organisms.

Effective against Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis.

Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococci, Staphylococcus auricolaris and Staphylococci have developed resistance to Gentamicin Sulfate, to varying degrees.

Toxic to the sensory cells of the ear.

A vestibulotoxin, that can cause permanent loss of equilibrium caused by damage to the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear.

Sometimes causes complete hearing loss.

Highly nephrotoxic, and, causes nephrotoxicity by inhibiting protein synthesis in renal cells.

Causes necrosis of cells in the proximal tubule, resulting in acute tubular necrosis which can lead to acute renal failure.

Dosed by body weight, and trough and peak serum levels of gentamicin are monitored during treatment.

Symptoms of gentamicin toxicity include: impaired balance, tinnitus, anorexia, confusion, depression, disorientation and visual hallucinations.

Gentamicin toxicity diminishes with time, except for sensory-neural hearing loss, which is permanent.

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