Fish

2 long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the likely active ingredients supporting lowered rate of coronary heart disease.

The above poly unsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects, they improved blood lipid profile, and help in vascular relaxation and plaque stability.

Fish, especially fatty fish, are a rich source of omega-three fatty acids.

DHA important for neurodevelopment during gestation and infancy.

Consumption of fatty fish or fish oil lowers risk of coronary artery disease deaths and sudden death.


Fish are high in vitamin D. Fish also contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which help with a variety of neurological dysfunctions.

There is a dose-dependent in inverse relationship between fish consumption and mortality from coronary artery disease (Zutphen).

Fish consumption per year is about 24 kg for people in the US and Canada, 

Consumption of fatty fish and fish oils is associated with cognitive benefits,
particularly for neurocognitive development among infants and children.

Large pooled analysis of five studies in Europe and North America found that higher levels of fish consumption were linked to slower rates of global cognitive and memory decline.

Intakes of fish or n-3 fatty acids has consistently been associated with slowing of
cognitive decline and decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in older adults.

Compared to little or no intake, moderate consumption of 250-500 mg/d of EPA and DHA lowers relative risk of cardiovascular disease by 25% or more.

Among Japanese there is high background fish intake with a median 900 mg/day of EPA and DHA and is associated with a very low coronary artery disease rate.

Fish intake inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

In a meta-analysis there was an inverse association between fish consumption and the risk of acute coronary syndrome: Fish consumption appears beneficial in the primary prevention of acute coronary syndrome, and higher consumption is associated with greater protection (Leung Yinko).

Each additional 100 g serving of fish per week is associated with a 5% reduce risk of acute coronary syndrome.

Fish are the major source of exposure to methylmercury.

Children who eat fish at least once a week sleep better and have IQ scores that are 4 points higher, on average, than those who consume fish less frequently or not at all.
(Jianghong Liu)

Fish, as opposed to omega-3 fatty acid supplements may be beneficial to cardiovascular health.

Consuming even a comparatively small amount of fish—at least one 4-ounce serving of fish per week, on average—can affect your risk of stroke as well as other heart-related health conditions.


The study EPIC-NL (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – Netherlands).


The authors found that those who ate fish of any kind were slightly less,  (only 7% less likely to experience a stroke than those who didn’t eat any fish at all. 


Comparing those who didn’t eat fish at all with those who ate some fish made no statistically significant difference for the risk of heart disease, heart attack, or death from any heart-related cause.


 People who consumed at least 1 portion of lean fish per week were 30% less likely to experience an ischemic stroke than those who ate no fish at all.


Those who consumed only fatty fish were 14% less likely to experience a stroke of any kind, were nearly 50% less likely to have a heart attack and were just over 60% less likely to die of a heart-related cause.

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