Incretin-mimetic exendin-4 an alternative to insulin.
Oral glucose stimulates release of incretins, which are gastrointestinal hormones, and explains why endogenous release of insulin is greater with oral glucose versus intravenous glucose administration.
Most significant incretin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is deficient in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Attaches to a receptor of GLP-1 and is a mimetic for GLP-1.
A GLP-1 antagonist that enhances glucose mediated insulin secretion.
Adjunctive therapy to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are taking metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a combination of such drugs but have not achieved adequate glucose control.
An injectable medication that is used in combination with other oral diabetes medications.
It is not insulin and it does not take the place of insulin.
It is used for type 2 diabetes only and cannot be given with insulin.
Comes in a pre-filled injector pen, and dose is 5 mcg. to start, twice a day within 60 minutes prior to morning and evening meals.
The doctor may be increased to 10 mcg.
Not recommended for use in patients with renal insufficiency or severe gastrointestinal disease.
Not useful in type I diabetes or in ketoacidosis.
Improves acute beta cell responsiveness in type 2 diabetes.
May be associated with pancreatitis and death.
Associated with a 2.9 times greater rate of pancreatic cancer.
Reported to be associated with acute renal failure.