Antimicrotubule agents from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum.

Target microtubules and stabilize their polymerizaton.

Stabilizes microtubules to block cellular entrance into mitosis to undergo cell division, leading to apoptosis.

Stabilizes microtubules by interacting with β-tubulin, the major component of microtubules.

Bind to bind to β-tubulin in a distinct manner.

Maintains efficacy in tumors that overexpress β-tubulin isoforms to which taxanes cannot bind, especially βIII-tubulin.

Malignancies may up regulate expression of βIII-tubulin and response to taxane treatment, impairing ability of these drugs to promote cell death.

Lesions with high levels of βIII-tubulin respond to this drug, but poorly to vinca alkaloids and taxanes.

Macrolides that promote tumor cell death by arresting cell division leading to apoptosis.

Ixabepilone a semi synthetic analog of epothilone B designed to enhance anti-tumor activity relative to other antineoplastic agents.

Bind to a site on beta microtubules and are able to overcome traditional taxane resistance mechanisms, such as mutations in beta microtubule and p-glycoprotein mediated drug efflux pumps.

Non-cross resistance in taxane refractory cell lines.

A low susceptibility to tumor resistance and survival mechanisms.

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