Epinephrine is released by the adrenal medulla upon activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating this organ.

Also known as adrenaline.

A potent alpha and beta adrenergic agonist that augments coronary perfusion pressure by increasing aortic pressure and thus coronary perfusion pressure.

Its alpha-agonist effects include increased peripheral vascular resistance, reversed peripheral vasodilatation, systemic hypotension, and vascular permeability.

Its beta2-agonist effects include bronchodilation, chronotropic cardiac activity, and positive inotropic effects.

Activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves occurs during times of stress.

Adrenaline hormone is released during periods of emotional and physical stress, can cause palpitations as a result of its effects on the parasympathetic nervous system.

Epinephrine causes increased heart rate and isotropy, vasoconstriction in most systemic arteries and veins, vasodilation in muscle and liver vasculatures at low concentrations and vasoconstriction at high concentrations.

It  augments coronary perfusion pressure by Increasing aortic pressure and verse coronary perfusion pressure: this has been shown to be associated with increase rates of return of spontaneous circulation in in-hospital cardiac arrests.

Cardiovascular response to low-to-moderate circulating concentrations of epinephrine is increased cardiac output and a redistribution of the cardiac output to muscular and hepatic circulations with only a small change in mean arterial pressure.

Cardiac output is increased, but arterial pressure does not change much because the systemic vascular resistance falls due to ?2-adrenoceptor activation.

At high plasma concentrations, epinephrine increases arterial pressure.

Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency measures to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, latex, and other causes.

Epinephrine is in a class of medications called alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, also known as sympathomimetic agents.

Works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and vasoconstricting blood vessels.

Comes as a prefilled automatic injection device containing a solution and in vials to inject subcutaneously or intramuscularly.

It is usually injected at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.

Signs of a serious allergic reaction include closing of the airways, wheezing, sneezing, hoarseness, hives, itching, swelling, skin redness, fast heartbeat, weak pulse, anxiety, confusion, stomach pain, losing control of urine or bowel movements, faintness, or loss of consciousness.

Should be injected only in the middle of the outer side of the thigh, and can be injected through clothing if necessary.

It should not be injected into the buttocks or fingers, hands, or feet or into a vein.

Side effects of epinephrine injection:

skin redness, swelling, warmth, or tenderness at the site of injection

difficulty breathing

pounding, fast, or irregular heartbeat





nervousness, anxiety, or restlessness


pale skin


uncontrollable shaking of the body

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